Bosutinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia
Vi Doan, alice Wang, anD Hillary Prescott

hronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

is a myeloproliferative disease typically characterized by the
translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which leads to the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) as well as the fusion of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR) on chro- mosome 22 with the Abelson murine leukemia gene (ABL) on chromo- some 9 to form the BCR–ABL on- cogene.1-3 BCR–ABL is a tyrosine kinase that promotes overproduction of myeloid cells by dysregulation of normal cell regulatory processes and ABL kinase activity, which leads to amplified cellular proliferation, decreased cell death, and the devel- opment of CML.3,4 CML accounts for approximately 10% of adult leu- kemias, with a median age of onset of 64 years. There were an estimated 5980 new diagnoses of CML and 810 deaths from CML in the United States in 2014.5 The disease course of CML is typically biphasic or tri- phasic. Most patients are diagnosed at an early stage of disease known as chronic-phase CML; many have no symptoms at the time of presen- tation. Although response rates are high for patients with chronic-phase CML treated with tyrosine kinase
Purpose. The pharmacology, pharmacoki- netics, efficacy, and safety of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) bosutinib in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are reviewed.
Summary. Although clinical outcomes are favorable in patients wth Philadelphia chro- mosome (Ph)–positive CML who receive first-line TKI therapy with imatinib, dasati- nib, and nilotinib, disease progression or re- lapse may occur. Thus, effective second-line agents are crucial. Bosutinib (Bosulif, Pfizer Inc.) is a second-generation TKI approved for the treatment of patients with Ph– positive chronic-, accelerated-, or blast- phase CML who are intolerant or resistant to other TKIs. Bosutinib inhibits a tyrosine ki- nase oncogene and Src kinases responsible for CML pathogenesis. Bosutinib is primar- ily metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4; therefore, concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers should be avoided. Bosu-

inhibitors (TKIs), patients are still at risk for progressing to accelerated- phase CML followed by a more ag- gressive phase known as blast crisis or blast-phase CML. Overall survival (OS) is notably worse for patients with advanced disease as opposed to chronic-phase CML, averaging six
tinib is effective in cases involving most imatinib-resistant mutations (not including the T315I and V299L mutations). Clinical trials demonstrated bosutinib’s efficacy in inducing durable hematologic and cyto- genetic responses, as well as high rates of progression-free and overall survival, in patients with CML who had developed resistance or intolerance to other TKIs. However, bosutinib was not found to be su- perior to imatinib for inducing cytogenetic responses in cases of newly diagnosed CML and is thus not indicated for use in TKI-naive patients. The most common adverse events among bosutinib-treated patients in clinical trials were diarrhea, nau- sea, and vomiting, which were generally transient and self-limited.
Conclusion. Bosutinib is a safe and effec- tive second-line treatment option for select patients with Ph-positive CML who were intolerant or resistant to prior TKI therapy. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2015; 72:439-47

months and 8.9 years, respectively.3,6 Therefore, optimal therapy is critical in improving outcomes for patients with CML. Several TKIs have been approved for the treatment of CML. This review focuses on bosutinib, a second-generation TKI, and its use in the treatment of CML.

Vi Doan, Pharm.D., is Postgraduate Year 2 Oncology Pharmacy Resident; Alice Wang, Pharm.D., BCOP, is Clinical Pharmacy Spe- cialist; and Hillary Prescott, Pharm.D., BCOP, is Clinical Phar- macy Specialist, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.
Address correspondence to Dr. Doan ([email protected]).

The authors have declared no potential conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2015, American Society of Health-System Pharma-
cists, Inc. All rights reserved. 1079-2082/15/0302-0439.
DOI 10.2146/ajhp140221

History of TKIs
Imatinib was the first TKI ap- proved by the Food and Drug Ad- ministration (FDA) for the treat- ment of chronic-, accelerated-, and blast-phase CML. When compared with interferon-alfa plus cytarabine in the Phase III International Random- ized Study of Interferon and ST1571 (IRIS) trial, imatinib produced sig- nificantly higher rates of complete he- matologic response (CHR), complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), and major cytogenetic response (MCyR) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic CML at a median follow-up of 19 months.7 Furthermore, freedom from progression to accelerated- or blast-phase CML was significantly more likely in the imatinib group versus the combination therapy group at 18 months. Thus, imatinib became the standard of care for the treatment of Ph-positive CML.
Responses to imatinib proved to be durable, with estimated event-free survival (EFS) and OS of 81% and 85%, respectively, at eight years.8 However, clinical trial data showing disease relapse and progression at five years among 24% of patients re- ceiving imatinib indicated a need for potent, safe, and effective second-line treatment options.9
Dasatinib is a potent second- generation TKI active against most BCR–ABL mutations in imatinib- resistant disease, with the exception of the T315I mutation. Dasatinib was demonstrated to induce CHR and MCyR in patients with imatinib- resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic-phase CML and, relative to imatinib, significantly higher rates of CCyR and major molecular response (MMR) in those with newly diag- nosed chronic-phase CML.10,11 Thus, dasatinib carries indications for first- and second-line treatment of patients with chronic-, accelerated-, and blast-phase CML. Nilotinib, another second-generation TKI, is approved for first- and second-line treatment of patients with chronic-

or accelerated-phase CML, based on high response rates in Phase II and III trials.12,13
Newer TKIs with activity against CML are still being developed due to observations of resistance and in- tolerance to imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib. In an eight-year update of the IRIS trial, 37% of patients treat- ed with imatinib experienced sub- optimal responses, including failure to achieve CCyR (17%), loss of CCyR (15%), and intolerance to im- atinib (5%).8 Suboptimal response may be due to resistance, thereby predisposing patients to progression of disease. Patients with advanced- stage CML and primary cytogenetic resistance to imatinib are at greater risk for disease progression.14 The emergence of TKI resistance is due to several mechanisms and may be associated with a poor prognosis and compromised TKI efficacy. Adenosine triphosphate– binding P-loop mutations have been associated with a poor prog- nosis and a median survival of 4.5 months.14,15 Overexpression or mutation of the BCR–ABL kinase domain may prevent TKI activity due to disruption of the binding of TKIs to BCR–ABL.16,17 A mutation on a single amino acid (T315I) causes disruption of a hydrogen bonding reaction between TKIs and BCR–ABL, which is known to confer resistance to most TKIs.16
Recently, two TKIs were approved for the treatment of CML: ponatinib and bosutinib. Ponatinib is a potent third-generation TKI, initially ap- proved by FDA in 2012, that was found to produce high rates of he- matologic and cytogenetic response in all phases of Ph-positive CML in patients who were resistant or in- tolerant to prior TKI therapy or ex- pressed the T315I mutation.18 Based on safety and efficacy data, ponatinib is now indicated for patients with Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leu- kemia (ALL) and for patients with chronic-, accelerated-, or blast-phase

CML who carry the T315I mutation or for whom no other TKI therapy is indicated.
Bosutinib is a second-generation TKI approved by FDA in 2012 for the treatment of chronic-, accelerated-, and blast-phase CML in patients who are intolerant or resistant to prior therapy. In this review, the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, ef- ficacy, safety, dosage and administra- tion, cost considerations, and place in CML therapy of bosutinib are summarized.

Bosutinib is a 7-alkoxy-3- quinolinecarbonitrile compound that specifically hinders the activity of the BCR–ABL kinase responsible for the pathogenesis of Ph-positive CML.19 Bosutinib also exhibits ac- tivity against Src kinases, which are involved with malignant cell trans- formation, tumor progression, and metastasis. The interaction between signal transduction pathways and Src kinases is thought to have a role in promoting progression to accelerated- and blast-phase CML.20 Bosutinib has additional activity against several tyrosine and serine– threonine kinases associated with myeloid leukemia cell propagation.4 In murine and human myeloid cell lines, bosutinib was shown to inhibit imatinib-resistant forms of BCR–ABL. However, it did not show activity against T315I and V299L mutations.19-21 Bosutinib is more potent than imatinib and is active against most imatinib-resistant mu- tations, thus making it a prospective therapeutic alternative.4,20 Unlike other second-generation TKIs, bo- sutinib minimally inhibits c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor recep- tor (PDGFR), which have a role in normal hematopoiesis.22-24 This char- acteristic of bosutinib may explain its broad therapeutic index and lower potential for myelosuppression, especially grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, compared with other TKIs.22,23

Bosutinib’s absorption is affected by both food intake and gastric pH. In a Phase I trial, the maximum plas- ma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) of bosutinib 200 mg were in- creased approximately twofold (p = 0.002) with administration of food as opposed to a fasting state.25 The Cmax and AUC of bosutinib 400 mg were increased ~1.4-fold (p = 0.172) and ~1.5 fold (p = 0.037), respectively, when the drug was administered with food. Pharmacokinetic expo- sures (Cmax and AUC) were linear and dose proportional for doses ranging from 200 to 800 mg administered with food. Doses up to 600 mg given with food were safe and well toler- ated; in fasting conditions, doses higher than 400 mg were associated with increased rates of adverse events such as diarrhea and nausea. The rate of diarrhea in the bosutinib 400-mg cohort decreased from 83% to 33% when the drug was administered with food. This finding suggested that food intake increased exposure by increasing bosutinib solubility, thus leading to fewer gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events and improved tolerability.25
The median time to peak concen- tration after a single 500-mg dose is 4–6 hours. Bosutinib is widely distributed, with an average volume of distribution of approximately 5000–7000 L. Additionally, bosutinib is highly protein bound. The mean elimination half-life is 22.5 hours; therefore, bosutinib is administered once daily. Bosutinib is primarily excreted in the feces.19
The solubility of bosutinib is pH dependent, and a gastric pH greater than 5 decreases bosutinib exposure. Therefore, the use of long-acting acid-suppressive agents such as pro- ton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can raise the gastric pH and, consequently, decrease the absorption of bosutinib. If acid suppression is necessary, the manufacturer of bosutinib recom-

mends that PPIs be replaced by short-acting antacids or histamine H2-receptor antagonists taken at least two hours before or after bosutinib administration.19
Bosutinib is primarily metabo- lized by the liver. The AUC and Cmax of bosutinib increase about twofold in patients with hepatic impairment, so caution in this patient population should be exercised.19,26 Bosutinib is a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate and inhibitor and is primarily metabo- lized to inactive metabolites by cyto- chrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4. Due to bosutinib’s metabolism via CYP3A4, concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers may result in increased or decreased plasma concentrations of bosutinib, respectively. Additionally, concomitant use of Pgp inhibitors should be avoided due to the poten- tial for increased serum concentra- tions of bosutinib.19

Criteria for treatment response The goals of TKI therapy are to
achieve hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses, in addi- tion to preventing progression to advanced disease. In order to quan- tify responses, complete blood count, bone marrow aspirate, and cytoge- netic studies are performed to detect Ph-positive metaphases, and a quan- titative polymerase chain reaction method is used to detect BCR–ABL messenger RNA.1
Primary imatinib resistance was defined in the bosutinib clinical tri- als as failure to achieve or maintain hematologic improvement within 4 weeks, CHR after 12 weeks, any cytogenetic response by 24 weeks, or MCyR by 12 months. Acquired resistance was defined as a loss of any hematologic response or MCyR.22,27 Intolerance was defined as the in- ability to continue TKI therapy due to the following reasons: grade 4 he- matologic toxicity lasting longer than seven days, grade 3 or greater nonhe- matologic toxicity, persistent grade 2

toxicity unresponsive to dose reduc- tions and medical management, and loss of a previously attained response on lower-dose TKI therapy among patients with previous toxicity.22,27

Phase I study
Abbas and colleagues25 conduct- ed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending- dose study in healthy subjects ran- domly assigned to receive bosutinib 200 or 400 mg while fasting; bosu- tinib 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg with a high-fat breakfast; or a placebo. It was discovered that bosutinib doses of 200–600 mg were safe and well tolerated when taken with food, and the drug’s relatively long half-life supported once-daily dosing.

Phase I/II clinical studies
In several Phase I/II studies and follow-up analyses, bosutinib had demonstrated efficacy in patients with chronic-, accelerated-, or blast-phase CML who were resistant or intolerant to imatinib or prior TKI therapies.
Chronic-phase CML with ima- tinib resistance or intolerance. In a large, multicenter, Phase I/II open- label study, Cortes and colleagues22 evaluated bosutinib therapy for chronic-phase CML. The Phase I re- sults determined the dose used in the Phase II portion of the study, which evaluated the safety and efficacy of bosutinib in patients resistant (n = 200) or intolerant (n = 88) to im- atinib. In the Phase II evaluation, patients received bosutinib 500 mg daily, with dose escalation to 600 mg daily allowed if bosutinib therapy failed to induce a CHR by week 8 or a CCyR by week 12 (if grade 3 or 4 toxicities were not observed). The primary endpoint of MCyR at 24 weeks was achieved in 31% (n = 90) of all treated patients (95% con- fidence interval [CI], 26–37%), and the median time to MCyR was 12.3 weeks; of these patients, 33% (95% CI, 27–40%) were resistant and 27% (95% CI, 18–38%) were intolerant to

imatinib. At a median follow-up of 24.2 months, CHR and CCyR were achieved in 78% and 41% of patients, respectively. Of the 110 patients in whom CCyR was achieved, 64% (n = 50) had an MMR and 53% (n = 41) had a CHR. At two years, progression-free survival (PFS) was 79% and OS was 92%. Eleven pa- tients (3.8%; 95% CI, 1.9–6.7%) had confirmed disease transformation to accelerated- or blast-phase CML while on bosutinib therapy. Bosuti- nib doses of ≥350 mg/day were as- sociated with a greater rate of MCyR than were doses of 250–350 mg (58% [n = 38 of 66] versus 51% [n = 21 of 41]). Responses were observed in patients with various BCR–ABL mu- tations, except for T315I, and rates of CHR and MCyR were similar among patients with and without mutations. In regard to safety, the most common adverse effects experienced were di- arrhea (84%, n = 243), nausea (44%, n = 128), rash (44%, n = 126), and vomiting (35%, n = 101). Of those patients who experienced diarrhea, 14% (n = 35) required dose inter- ruption, 5% (n = 13) required dose reduction, and 3% (n = 6) discon- tinued therapy. Thirty-three patients were rechallenged with bosutinib, and the majority of these patients (94%, n = 31) did not have a repeat episode of diarrhea, nor was bosuti- nib permanently discontinued due to diarrhea. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities were thrombocytopenia (24%, n = 68), neutropenia (18%, n = 53), and anemia (13%, n = 36), with a median time to onset of 29 days. Less common adverse events were fluid retention, pleural effusion, and muscle-related adverse effects; these were predominantly grade 1 or
2events. The investigators concluded that bosutinib is a safe and effective treatment for patients with chronic- phase CML who are resistant or in- tolerant to imatinib.
The most recent data from a 48-month follow-up to the study of Cortes et al.22 were presented at the

American Society of Hematology’s 2013 annual meeting.28 A total of 286 patients (196 imatinib-resistant and 90 imatinib-intolerant patients) were followed for a median dura- tion of 47.3 months (range, 0.6–90.6 months). The median duration of treatment was 24.8 months (range, 0.2–83.4 months). CHR, MCyR, and CCyR were achieved in 86% (244 of 285), 59% (156 of 264), and 49% (130 of 264) of evaluable patients, respectively. The probability of maintaining an MCyR at four years was 75%. At four years, the cumula- tive incidence of disease progression or death while on treatment was 22% for imatinib-resistant patients and 10% for imatinib-intolerant pa- tients. Cumulatively, transformation to accelerated- or blast-phase CML during bosutinib therapy occurred in 4% of patients. OS rates at two years were 88% and 98% for imatinib- resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients, respectively. Overall, 60% of patients (n = 173) discontinued bosutinib, mostly due to adverse events or disease progression. Dose reductions were required in 58% of imatinib-intolerant patients, and 13% of patients required a dosage es- calation to 600 mg daily due to a lack of efficacy at lower dosages. Based on these data, the investigators conclud- ed that bosutinib has durable efficacy and manageable toxicities in patients with chronic-phase CML who are resistant or intolerant to imatinib.28
Chronic-phase CML with resis- tance or intolerance to two or more TKIs. Khoury and colleagues27 ex- tended the aforementioned study by Cortes et al.22 to include a subpopu- lation of adults with chronic-phase CML who experienced imatinib treatment failure and also devel- oped resistance or intolerance to dasatinib or nilotinib. A total of 118 patients were evaluated and received treatment with bosutinib 500 mg daily. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range, 0.3–56.2 months). Thirty-two percent of patients (35 of

108) achieved an MCyR and 24% (26 of 108) achieved a CCyR by 24 weeks. Of note, 1 of the 3 patients who had experienced prior treatment failures with all three alternative TKIs had a CCyR with bosutinib therapy. The dosage of bosutinib was escalated to 600 mg/day in 20 patients who did not have a CHR by week 8 or a CCyR by week 12. A treatment response was achieved as a result of dose escalation in 30% of patients (n = 6): CHR in 2, CCyR in 3, and partial cytogenetic response in 1. At one year, the me- dian PFS was 77% and OS was 91%. Only 4% (n = 5) of patients had dis- ease transformation to accelerated- phase CML, and no patient had transformation to blast-phase CML. Responses were observed in patients with BCR–ABL kinase mutations, including CHR and MCyR in those with mutations conferring resistance to dasatinib and nilotinib. Common GI toxicities were diarrhea (81%, n = 96), nausea (43%, n = 51), and vomit- ing (32%, n = 38), which frequently resolved on their own or with sup- portive care and dose adjustments. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities included thrombocytopenia (25%, n = 30), neutropenia (19%, n = 23), and anemia (8%, n = 10). There were reports of grade 3 or 4 elevations in liver function test results (elevated alanine transaminase [ALT] in 7% of patients [n = 8] and elevated aspartate transaminase [AST] in 3% of patients [n = 4]), but those events seldom led to bosutinib discontinuation. Twenty percent of patients (n = 24) discontin- ued bosutinib due to adverse effects.
In a 36-month study update with a median follow-up duration of 33.1 months (range, 0.3–84.8 months), CHR, MCyR, and CCyR were noted in 73% (85 of 116), 40% (44 of 110), and 32% (35 of 110) of patients, respectively. OS was estimated to be 84% at two years, while transfor- mation to accelerated-phase CML occurred in 4% of patients.29 Based on the data presented, it appears that bosutinib exhibits durable efficacy

in patients with chronic-phase CML who are resistant or intolerant to multiple TKIs.
Accelerated- and blast-phase CML with resistance or intoler- ance to prior TKIs. The efficacy of bosutinib in accelerated-phase CML (n = 63), blast-phase CML (n = 48), and Ph-positive ALL (n = 23) was evaluated in 134 imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant patients who received bosutinib 500 mg daily for a median follow-up of 8.3 months.30 Additional prior therapies included interferon (n = 43), dasatinib (n = 45), nilotinib (n = 16), and stem cell transplantation (n = 12). CHR was achieved in 20 of 33 patients (61%) with accelerated-phase CML, 7 of 22 patients (32%) with blast-phase CML, and 1 of 4 patients (25%) with Ph-positive ALL. CCyR was achieved in 9 of 27 patients (33%) and 6 of 21 patients (29%) with accelerated- and blast-phase CML, respectively, and 2 of 2 patients (100%) with Ph-positive ALL; the corresponding rates of MMR in those groups were 15% (4 of 26 patients), 28% (7 of 25 patients), and 46% (6 of 13 patients). PFS (calculated via Kaplan–Meier analysis) was estimated to be 11.6 months (95% CI, 8.4–20.1 months) for accelerated-phase CML, 7.8 months (95% CI, 4.0–8.8 months) for blast-phase CML, and 2.7 months (95% CI, 1.3–4.2 months) for Ph- positive ALL. Among 66 evaluable patients, 40 had BCR–ABL muta- tions; 50% and 47% of those patients experienced CHR and MCyR with bosutinib, respectively. Similarly, CHR and MCyR were achieved in 47% and 54% of patients without mutations, respectively. Of note, 9 of the 10 patients with the T315I muta- tion were resistant to bosutinib. It is important to note that the numbers of evaluable patients varied by dis- ease status and endpoint and were generally small. This study showed that bosutinib is an effective option for accelerated- and blast-phase CML with or without BCR–ABL

mutations (not including the T315I mutation).

Phase III study
The Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in Newly Diagnosed CML (BELA) trial compared response rates be- tween bosutinib and imatinib in pa- tients with newly diagnosed chronic- phase CML in a Phase III open-label, randomized, multicenter study.23 Five-hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to receive either bosutinib 500 mg (n = 250) or im- atinib 400 mg (n = 252) orally daily. The primary endpoint was CCyR at 12 months. Secondary and explor- atory endpoints included MMR, MCyR, and CHR at 12 months, time to transformation to accelerated- or blast-phase CML while on treatment, time to first response, duration of response, EFS, and OS. The median duration of treatment for both study groups was 13.8 months. The rates of CCyR at 12 months were similar with bosutinib (70%; 95% CI, 64–76%) and imatinib (68%, 95% CI, 62–74%; p = 0.601), and thus the primary study endpoint was not met. How- ever, the MMR rate at 12 months was superior with the use of bosutinib (41%; 95% CI, 35–47%) versus im- atinib (27%; 95% CI, 22–33%; p < 0.001). Additionally, the rates of CHR at 12 months were similar for bosutinib and imatinib (71% and 85%, respectively; p > 0.999). The median times to CHR were 4.4 weeks for patients treated with bosutinib and 4.6 weeks for those receiving im- atinib (p = 0.579). The median time to the first CCyR was shorter with bosutinib than with imatinib (12.9 weeks versus 24.6 weeks, p < 0.001). Additionally, the median time to the first MMR was shorter with bosuti- nib than with imatinib (37.1 weeks versus 72.3 weeks, p < 0.001). EFS rates at 12 months were similar with bosutinib and imatinib (94% and 93%, respectively); however, a lower percentage of patients in the bosuti- nib group experienced transforma-

tion to accelerated- or blast-phase CML (2% [n = 4] versus 4% [n = 10]). Of patients receiving bosutinib and imatinib, 96% and 95%, re- spectively, experienced a treatment- related adverse event. Compared with patients receiving imatinib, pa- tients receiving bosutinib had higher rates of treatment interruption (61% [n = 152] versus 42% [n = 105]), dose reduction (39% [n = 97] versus 18% [n = 45]), and therapy discon- tinuation (19% [n = 48] versus 6% [n = 14]) due to adverse events. In comparison to imatinib, bosutinib was associated with higher rates of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain but lower rates of edema, bone pain, and muscle spasm. The inves- tigators concluded that although it was not shown to be superior to ima- tinib in terms of the primary efficacy endpoint, bosutinib induced CCyR and MMR faster in newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML. However, due to the failure to meet the primary end- point, bosutinib did not gain FDA approval for use as a first-line treat- ment for newly diagnosed chronic- phase CML.
In a 30-month follow-up to the BELA study, CCyR rates in the bo- sutinib and imatinib groups by 24 months were similar (79% versus 80%, respectively); however, MMR rates were higher for bosutinib than imatinib (59% versus 49%, p = 0.019).31 The median treat- ment duration was 27.5 months for both groups. Transformation to accelerated- or blast-phase CML while on therapy occurred in 2% of bosutinib-treated patients (n = 4) and 5% of imatinib-treated patients (n = 13). At 24 months, OS estimates were 97% with the use of bosutinib and 95% with imatinib use. Based on these follow-up data, it appears that bosuti- nib use is associated with a CCyR rate similar to that achieved with imatinib but notably higher rates of MMR and a trend toward higher OS and less risk of transformation to accelerated- or blast-phase CML.31

Overall, bosutinib is well toler- ated. The most common adverse effects are grade 1 or 2 diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The labeling for bosutinib includes warnings for GI toxicity, myelosuppression, hepa- totoxicity, fluid retention, and fetal toxicity.19 Bosutinib’s toxicity profile varies from those of other TKIs; for example, bosutinib is associated with relatively lower rates of pleural effu- sions, edema, rashes, muscle cramps, skin hypopigmentation, and myelo- suppression. This may be explained by bosutinib’s minimal inhibition of c-KIT and PDGFR.21,24,32
GI toxicity. The most frequently observed toxicity experienced by patients taking bosutinib is diarrhea. In clinical trials, diarrhea (all grades) was reported in up to 84% of pa- tients, with grade 3 or 4 diarrhea oc- curring in 9% of patients.22,23,27 Typi- cally, diarrhea occurred in the first one to four weeks from treatment initiation; the median time to onset varied from 1.5 to 3.0 days, and the median duration was 2–3 days.22,23,27 Diarrhea is often self-limiting but can also be pharmacologically man- aged with antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate–atropine or loper- amide, or by dose reduction or in- terruption. In a Phase I/II study by Kantarjian et al.,33 rates of diarrhea were similar among patients regard- less of treatment indication.
Among patients enrolled in clini- cal trials, nausea of any grade oc- curred in 31–44%, while the rate of grade 3 or 4 nausea was minimal (1%).22,23,27 Vomiting of all grades occurred in 32–35% of patients, and grade 3 or 4 vomiting occurred in 1–3% of patients. Like diarrhea, nau- sea and vomiting frequently resolved without intervention.22,23,27 To mini- mize GI toxicities, bosutinib should be taken with food.
Other nonhematologic labora- tory abnormalities. Elevation of liver enzymes (ALT and AST), hyper- magnesemia, and hypophosphate-

mia are among the most frequent grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic labo- ratory abnormalities observed with bosutinib therapy. In the aforemen- tioned study by Kantarjian et al.,33 grade 3 or 4 hypermagnesemia and hypophosphatemia occurred in 10% and 8% of patients, respectively.
In the clinical trials summarized above, transaminase elevations (all grades) during bosutinib therapy oc- curred in 14–69% of patients, with grade 3 or 4 elevations reported in 3–30% of patients and 2% of patients requiring therapy discontinuation due to elevated ALT levels22,23,27,33; a majority of patients (74%) were successfully rechallenged with bosu- tinib after temporary dose interrup- tions and reductions. Monitoring of liver enzymes should be performed monthly for the first three months of bosutinib therapy and as clinically indicated. More frequent monitoring is indicated for patients with elevated transaminases.19
Hematologic toxicity. In compari- son with other TKIs, the hematologic toxicity profile of bosutinib appears favorable. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred less frequently in patients receiving bosutinib than in those treated with imatinib (11% versus 24%) as a first-line therapy.23 It is postulated that bosutinib may have less hematologic toxicity than other TKIs due to its minimal activity against c-KIT. In clinical trials, grade
3or 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 6–13% and 14–24% of patients, respectively.22,23 The rate of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression appears to be lower with the use of bosutinib as a first-line therapy.33 For example, grade 3 or 4 neutro- penia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 11% and 14% of clinical trial participants, respectively, when bosutinib was used as a first-line therapy, compared with rates of 17% and 25%, respectively, when it was used as a second-line treat- ment.23,27 Additionally, patients with advanced-stage CML had higher

rates of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppres- sion, including thrombocytopenia (60%), neutropenia (41%), and anemia (35%), relative to patients with chronic-phase CML.33 The me- dian time to myelosuppression was 22 days (range, 1–1767 days), and the median duration was 14 days (range, 1–1373 days).33 Weekly com- plete blood counts should be per- formed for the first month of therapy and then monthly thereafter or as clinically indicated.19 Dose reduc- tions or interruptions and growth factor administration are recom- mended as strategies for managing myelosuppression.1,33
Cross-intolerance. There is in- direct evidence of limited cross- intolerance to bosutinib (usually my- elosuppression related) in patients with prior intolerance to imatinib and dasatinib.
A retrospective evaluation of data from the Phase II portion of the study of Cortes et al.22 found that 27% of patients in that study who were classified as imatinib intolerant experienced the same grade 3 or 4 adverse event while receiving bosu- tinib as they had experienced while receiving imatinib, with 6% of those patients discontinuing bosutinib as a result (events were most often related to myelosuppression). Simi- larly, in the study of Khoury et al.,27 22% of dasatinib-intolerant patients who had previously experienced an adverse effect while using dasatinib experienced the same adverse effect while on bosutinib therapy, prompt- ing 8% of those patients to discontin- ue bosutinib therapy. Among the 20 patients with dasatinib intolerance related to grade 3 or 4 myelosup- pression, 40% (n = 8) experienced grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression with bosutinib, and 10% of these patients (n = 2) discontinued bosutinib therapy.27 Bosutinib demonstrated limited or no cross-intolerance with imatinib and dasatinib with regard to grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to musculoskeletal events, cardiovas-

cular events, GI events, respiratory events, and skin disorders. Based on the retrospective evaluation of cross- intolerance, bosutinib appears to be a good option for patients who have experienced considerable toxicity with prior TKI therapy (e.g., pleural effusion or rash with dasatinib and edema, musculoskeletal, or GI event with imatinib).

Dosing and administration Bosutinib is commercially avail-
able as 100- and 500-mg film-coated tablets.19 The recommended dosage of bosutinib is 500 mg orally once a day; the drug should be taken with food to optimize absorption and tolerability. Dosage escalation to 600 mg once daily can be considered in patients taking 500 mg daily who do not achieve a CHR by week 8 or a CCyR by week 12 and do not have grade 3 or higher adverse reactions. Patients with preexisting hepatic im- pairment or renal impairment (i.e., a creatinine clearance of <30 mL/min) require dosage reduction to 200 or 300 mg once daily, respectively. Dose adjustments are recommended in patients experiencing hematologic or nonhematologic grade 3 or higher toxicity such as myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, and diarrhea.19
For transaminase elevations great- er than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), bosutinib should be withheld until transaminases recover to a value of ≤2.5 times the ULN and resumed at a lower dos- age of 400 mg once daily. If recovery in transaminases takes longer than four weeks, bosutinib should be discontinued. Additionally, elevation of serum transaminases (to ≥3 times the ULN) occurring concurrently with elevation of bilirubin (to >2 times the ULN) and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase (to <2 times the ULN) warrants discontinuation of bosutinib.19
Bosutinib should be withheld in the presence of grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (or if the patient has seven or more

stools per day above baseline) until patient recovery to a diarrhea grade no higher than 1; bosutinib should be resumed with a dosage reduction to 400 mg once daily, and dose reesca- lation to 500 mg may be considered if clinically appropriate.19
Hematologic toxicity also war- rants dose interruption, reduction, or discontinuation. Bosutinib should be withheld in the presence of neu- tropenia (an absolute neutrophil count [ANC] of <1,000 × 106/L) or thrombocytopenia (a platelet count of <50,000 × 106/L) until recovery in both the ANC (to ≥1,000 × 106/L) and the platelet count (to ≥50,000 × 106/L). If myelosuppression resolves within two weeks, the previous dose of bosutinib should be resumed. However, if myelosuppression con- tinues for more than two weeks, bosutinib therapy should be resumed at a reduced dose (100 mg less than the current daily dose) upon the re- covery in blood counts. If cytopenias recur, the bosutinib dose should be reduced by an additional 100 mg. Of note, bosutinib dosages of less than 300 mg/day have not been evaluated.19

Cost considerations
The average wholesale price and wholesale acquisition cost of bosuti- nib 500-mg tablets are approximately
$10,300 and $8,600 per bottle of 30 tablets, respectively. The wholesale acquisition cost per month of bosu- tinib therapy is comparable to that of imatinib ($7,660.76), nilotinib ($8,290.47), dasatinib ($8,839.59), and ponatinib ($10,350.00).34 Ad- ditionally, the manufacturer of bo- sutinib offers a patient copayment assistance program that can yield a maximum annual savings of
$25,000. Eligible patients pay no more than $10 for each 30-day sup- ply of bosutinib.

Place in therapy and future directions
Bosutinib is currently indicated

for all phases of CML in patients who are intolerant or resistant to prior TKI therapy. Response rates at 6 months with bosutinib are comparable to responses seen with other second-generation TKIs in patients with imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic-phase CML (Table 1); in such patients, high rates of CHR and CCyR have been achieved with bosutinib and main- tained by the majority of patients at 48 months.22,28 Furthermore, bosuti- nib has been shown to induce cytoge- netic responses in patients who had failed imatinib and developed resis- tance or intolerance to dasatinib or nilotinib.27 Positive clinical outcomes have been demonstrated with bosuti- nib use in terms of high PFS and OS and a low rate of transformation to advanced disease.27 In the 36-month update of the original study of Khoury et al.,27 CHR and MCyR were maintained by most patients receiv- ing bosutinib therapy.29 Therefore, bosutinib is a therapeutic option for patients who have experienced treat- ment failures with or are intolerant to prior TKI therapies such as imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Additionally, bosutinib has demonstrated efficacy in patients with accelerated- or blast- phase CML, as well as patients with Ph-positive ALL, who are resistant or intolerant to imatinib or other TKIs.

Bosutinib was not demonstrated to produce CCyR rates superior to those produced by imatinib in pa- tients with newly diagnosed CML participating in the Phase III BELA trial23 and was thus not approved as a first-line therapy (unlike nilotinib and dasatinib). However, the BELA trial demonstrated that bosutinib was superior to imatinib in terms of MMR at 12 months and shorter times to CCyR and MMR. The short- er times to CCyR and MMR suggest more rapid reduction of disease burden with bosutinib versus ima- tinib. Achieving CCyR early in the

course of TKI therapy (i.e., within the first 12 months and especially within the first 3 or 6 months) is as- sociated with improved three-year EFS and OS rates in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML treated with imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib.35 In a multivariate analysis, the use of second-generation TKIs was found to be the most favorable factor for achieving a 12-month CCyR (odds ratio, 15.5; p < 0.001), but validation of these observations is needed.35 Recently published evi- dence indicates that patients achiev- ing an MCyR within 3 months of the initiation of bosutinib as a second- line therapy had better OS (p = 0.0004) and a lower rate of disease progression or death (p = 0.0002)

than patients not experiencing an MCyR by 6 months.36 Other evidence indicates that fewer transformations to accelerated- and blast-phase CML occur with the use of bosutinib in- stead of imatinib.23 The advantage of shorter times to response with bosu- tinib and other second-generation TKIs may be a potential future di- rection for research on TKI therapy in CML. Reported rates of CCyR by or at 12 months appear similar among all studies comparing second- generation TKIs to imatinib as first-line therapies (Table 2).11,13,23 However, in one of those studies, 15 patients discontinued bosutinib be- fore the first postbaseline assessment (at month 3) as a result of an adverse event.23 Treatment discontinuations

occurred in 50% of patients (n = 25) in the imatinib group due to disease progression, whereas 66% of patients (n = 47) in the bosutinib group discontinued therapy due to adverse events. The larger dropout rate in the bosutinib group may have contributed to the similar CCyR rates with imatinib and bosutinib.
Additionally, bosutinib is effec- tive against almost all BCR–ABL mutations conferring resistance to imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, with the exception of the T315I and V299L mutations.27 When selecting TKI therapy for a patient with CML, drug administration, adverse-effect profile, patient comorbidities, and mutation status should be consid- ered to optimize outcomes.

Bosutinib is a safe and effective

Table 1.
Response to Second-Generation TKIs in Patients With Chronic- Phase CML Resistant or Intolerant to Imatiniba,b

Rate of Patient Response (%) at 6 mo
second-line treatment option for select patients with Ph-positive CML who were intolerant or resistant to prior TKI therapy.

Dasatinib10 Nilotinib12 Bosutinib22
1.National Comprehensive Cancer Net- work. Clinical practice guidelines in on- cology: chronic myelogenous leukemia, version 1 (2014). (accessed 2013 Dec 27).

aTKI = tyrosine kinase inhibitor, CML = chronic myeloid leukemia, CHR = complete hematologic response, MCyR = major cytogenetic response, CCyR = complete cytogenetic response.
bData are derived from single-arm noncomparative studies.

Table 2.
Response to Second-Generation TKIs vs. Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase CML

Response/Outcome (%) at 12 mo
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Dasatinib vs.
imatinib11 Nilotinib vs.
imatinib13 Bosutinib vs.

77 vs. 66 p = 0.007 80 vs. 65 p < 0.001 70 vs. 68 p = 0.601

46 vs. 28 p < 0.0001
44 vs. 22 p < 0.001 41 vs. 27 p < 0.001
Transformation to Accelerated or Blast Phase
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2 vs. 4
. . .
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