KRAS status was only available in 300 patients retrospectively wi

KRAS status was only available in 300 patients retrospectively with 36% harboring KRAS mutations. PFS was significantly longer in the KRAS wild-type group compared to the KRAS mutated group (4.0 vs. 2.8 mo, P=0.095) while RR and OS was similar. No comparison was made between patients with KRAS wild-type tumors who received or did not receive cetuximab (43). Combining cetuximab with an oxaliplatin-based regimen has proven to have no survival benefit according to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical randomized phase III trials. The COIN (27) and NORDIC VII (28) trials

failed to show a statistically significant survival benefit (see Table 1) while the phase II randomized OPUS trial did show an increase in median PFS (26). It should be noted that these studies used various oxaliplatin-regimens with the most modern regimen, modified FOLFOX6 (5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2, infusional 5-FU Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2,400 mg/m2 over 46 h, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, repeated every 2 weeks) or CAPEOX (Capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 bid po 2 weeks out of 3 with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 iv every 3 weeks) used in the COIN trial while the NORDIC trial used FLOX (bolus 5-FU 500 mg/m2 iv with folinic acid 60 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1, repeated every 2 weeks) and OPUS used FOLFOX4 (5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical leucovorin

200 mg/m2 followed by infusional 5-FU 600 mg/m2 over 22 h on days 1-2, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, repeated every 2 weeks). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The COIN trial was a randomized controlled phase III trial which Talazoparib included 1,630 patients who got randomized to mFOLFOX6/CAPEOX (arm A), mFOLFOX6/CAPEOX with cetuximab (arm B) or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The comparison of arms A and B in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors showed an increase

in ORR (57% vs. 64%, P=0.049) but no effect was observed in PFS (8.6 vs. 8.6 mo) or OS (17.9 vs. 17.0 mo) (27). The OPUS and COIN trials were pooled together in a recent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ASCO presentation with a total of 423 patients with KRAS wild-type tumors and the addition of cetuximab did improve response rates (odds ratio 1.87, 95% CI, Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1.07-3.28) and PFS (hazard ratio, HR 0.69, 95% CI, 0.52-0.92) but OS did not show a statistically significant improvement (HR 0.90, 95% CI, 0.73-1.11) (44). Based on these compelling results, the option for a combination of cetuximab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy has been removed as a recommendation from the NCCN guidelines (19) although is still recommended in parts of Europe (45). Panitumumab The first trial with panitumumab explored its activity as a single agent compared to best supportive care in refractory patients. Of the 463 patients that were randomized, 57% were found to have KRAS wild-type tumors. In that population ORR was significantly improved (17% vs. 0%) along with an improvement in PFS (12.3 vs. 7.3 weeks) and OS (8.1 vs. 7.6 mo, HR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.55-0.82) compared to best supportive care (29).

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