Oxidative stress One of the first, and most relevant hypotheses f

Oxidative stress One of the first, and most relevant hypotheses for PD pathogenesis relates to increased oxidativc/nitrative stress in mesencephalic DA neurons. In PD, DA can auto-oxidize into toxic dopamine-quinone species, superoxide radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. DA auto-oxidizes into neuromclanin, the phenotypic marker of midbrain DA neurons in humans. Accordingly, the neuromelanin content and distribution in the parkinsonian mesencephalon has been linked to the vulnerability of DA neurons to undergo cell death.80 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Oxidativc/nitrative stress may result

in protein oxidation/nitration81,82; decreased neuronal glutathione and glutathione peroxidase content, which prevents inactivation of hydrogen peroxide and enhances formation of toxic hydroxyl radicals83-85; basal lipid peroxidation, which results in membrane damage86; DNA and RNA oxidation75,87; and formation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of I LBs.88 A potential signaling pathway between oxidative stress and subsequent cell death has been explored by Hunot ct al.89 They showed that, nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-KB (NF-κB), which is triggered by oxidative stress and precedes the engagement of an apoptotic program, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is increased 70-fold in nigral DA neurons from PD subjects

compared with control subjects. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in altered iron, ferritin, and trace metal contents of nigral DA neurons and may increase the susceptibility of these neurons to cell death.90-92 Prior to causing cell death, increased iron in the brain has been suggested to trigger LB formation and initiation of

inflammatory responses.93 Interestingly, the detection of redox-activc Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical iron in situ showed a strong labeling of LBs in the SNpc of PD patients, whereas cortical LBs remained unstained; this indicates a fundamental difference between cortical and brain-stem LBs.94 Similarly, Giasson et al95 reported that nitrated α-synuclein is present in the major filamentous building blocks of LBs, underlining the importance of oxidativc/nitrative stress in PD. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html inflammation The degeneration of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DA neurons is associated with a strong glial reaction, which is generally considered to be a nonspecific consequence of neuronal degeneration. However, there is increasing evidence that inflammation is an active phenomenon in PD, continuously triggering DA cell death in this neurodegenerative disorder. The glial reaction in the SN of PD patients is a well-known before neuropathological characteristic of the disease. In their seminal study, McGeer and McGeer 96 reported a large number of reactive human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLADR)-positive microglial cells in the SN of PD patients. Such a glial reaction has also been described in the affected brain regions in other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and brain infarct,97 as well as in animal models of PD.

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