Subjects in the present study were highly trained, RE athletes and as such may have been less impacted by the RE protocol used such that their catecholamine responses were minimal, thus CHO supplementation was not beneficial. We did not measure catecholamines in the present study but blood/plasma lactate has been cited as a proxy measure for epinephrine [30]. The lack of difference in plasma

lactate between treatments in the current study could be indicative of a similar catecholamine response between the CHO and placebo conditions. It should be noted, however, that untrained individuals would likely have a greater stress and immune response from RE, especially of this intensity and duration [31] and

could potentially benefit from CHO supplementation. IgA Several studies have found that SHP099 heavy exercise can elicit a post-exercise decrease in salivary IgA levels [32, 33]. Suggested mechanisms behind an exercise-induced decrease in salivary IgA include changes in the transport of IgA across the mucosal epithelium or sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction in the oral submucosa and consequent reduction in the migration of cells synthesizing and secreting IgA [34]. However, this finding is not Momelotinib price consistent as other studies have reported either no change [35] or an increase [36] in post-exercise s-IgA. A likely explanation for these discrepant findings is the debate over the best method of expressing salivary Phospholipase D1 IgA changes during exercise. Raw IgA concentrations do not account for changes in saliva composition typically associated with exercise [37]. IgA:Protein has been the traditional method to correct for the drying effects of exercise on oral surfaces [38]. However, exercise typically produces an increase in the total protein content of saliva, thus apparent decreases in salivary IgA:Protein following exercise may reflect changes in the total protein content of the saliva sample, rather than fluctuations in IgA [34, 38]. Reflective

of this confusion, the three available studies on the effects of resistance exercise on salivary IgA have reported a decrease in salivary IgA expressed relative to total salivary protein [19], no change [39] or an increase [40] in raw salivary IgA. In the present study, we observed no changes in IgA (expressed as either a flow rate or relative to osmolality). Our findings taken with those previously reported in the literature raises questions about the utility of post-exercise fluctuations in IgA. Studies that have reported a link between salivary IgA levels and URTI incidence were obtained from resting samples [5]. Transient fluctuations in post-exercise salivary IgA (not observed in the case of this study) have yet to display any clinical relevance.

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