The exact responses (including acclimation) depend on the coral s

The exact responses (including acclimation) depend on the coral species, the magnitude of salinity change compared to background levels, and the exposure time (Berkelmans et al., 2012). However, it is currently unknown whether adverse effects of salinity on coral reefs have become more frequent or extensive with alteration of freshwater flow regimes to tropical coastal waters. Cores of reef sediment and corals have indicated both increases

(McCulloch et al., 2003) and decreases (Hungspreugs et al., 2002) in terrestrial sediment fluxes to coral reefs since the 1900s. Increases in sediment fluxes can result in smothering of coral reef organisms due to the settling of suspended sediment (sedimentation), as well as in reduced light availability for photosynthesis check details due to turbidity caused by suspended sediment in the water column (Fabricius, 2011). Sedimentation

can lead to profound changes in coral populations affecting all life history stages. High sedimentation rates may reduce larval recruitment by making the settlement substratum unsuitable (Dikou and van Woesik, 2006). After settlement, sediment composition and short-term sedimentation affect the survival of coral recruits, and inhibits growth of adult corals through reduced photosynthesis and production (Fabricius, 2011). Extensive or excessive sediment exposure can also result in coral Idelalisib manufacturer disease (Sutherland et al., 2004) and mortality (Victor et al., 2006), and concomitant phase shifts to macro-algal dominance have been observed (De’ath

and Fabricius, 2010 and Dikou and van Woesik, 2006). Recovery is possible from short-term or low levels of sedimentation (Fabricius, 2011) as the polyps of many coral species exhibit sediment rejection behavior comprising of ciliary currents, tissue expansion, and mucus production (Stafford-Smith and Ormond, 1992). The exact responses to sedimentation depend on the coral species, duration and amount of sedimentation, and sediment Methisazone types (Fabricius, 2011). Enriched signatures of N isotopes in coral cores and tissues indicate increased fluxes of terrestrial N to coral reefs from agricultural and sewage run-off since at least the 1970s (Jupiter et al., 2008, Marion et al., 2005 and Yamazaki et al., 2011). Likewise, cores of reef sediment and corals have indicated an increase in terrestrial phosphorus fluxes to coral reefs in the 20th century, associated with soil erosion, sewage, aquaculture and mining operations and harbor development (Chen and Yu, 2011, Dodge et al., 1984, Harris et al., 2001 and Mallela et al., 2013). Corals are mostly adapted to low-nutrient environments and increases in primary production and eutrophication due to enhanced nutrient loads can detrimentally affect corals (Fabricius, 2011).

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