The structure of aggrecan has a protein core of approximately 200

The structure of aggrecan has a protein core of approximately 200 kDa molecular weight in which glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains containing approximately, 100 chondroitin

sulphate (CS) chains (MW 10–25 kDa), 30–60 keratin sulphate (KS) chains (MW 3–15 kDa), and N- and O-linked oligosaccharides are covalently attached [10]. CS is one of the GAGs composed of the alternating sugars d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine Selleck PR-171 (GalNAc). As a major GAG of aggrecan molecules in the antler, CS accounts for approximately 92% of total GAGs with relatively small amounts of KS [29] and [25]. Thus, CS is an important component of the extracellular matrix in antler cartilage. Due to its negative charge, CS is responsible

for water retention in the cartilage, which is important for pressure resistance. Physiologically, CS increases hyaluronan production by human synovial cells to maintain viscosity in the synovial fluid [6]. It also has many functional properties for the prevention of osteoarthritis, such as modifying the chondrocyte apoptosis process, improving the anabolic/catabolic balance of the extracellular this website cartilage matrix, reducing pro-inflammatory and catabolic factors, and stimulating the anabolic processes involved in new cartilage formation in osteoarthritis [11]. In addition, CS shows a dose-dependent increase in free radical scavenging [2]. This antioxidant activity, caused by the chelation of transition metals such as Cu2+ and Fe2+, is also believed to be partially responsible for the chondroprotective effects of CS, as oxidative stress has been shown to increase the risk and effects

of osteoarthritis [1], [7], [3], [5] and [33]. CS is an important constituent for the preservation of corneal tissues. So far, there is no efficient treatment that could prevent the pathological process of arthropathy. Oral administration of CS was suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of osteoarthritis. To take advantage of these important functionalities, CS can be ingested as a food supplement once it has been extracted from the cartilaginous tissue. The extraction of CS requires C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) the degradation of collagen and the core protein in the extracellular matrix. In this study, a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) is tested as a relatively new extraction process for isolating CS from cartilaginous tissues of antlers. HHP greater than 100 MPa increases water penetration into the protein interior and damages the cell membrane, which unfolds protein molecules and simultaneously inactivates bacteria at ambient temperatures within few minutes. This phenomenon allows HHP to be widely used in food preservation as an alternative to heat treatment, maintaining the stability and functionality of enzymes at a pressure less than 200 MPa and concurrently increasing their reaction rate [17].

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