This potentially demonstrates how effects from a tributary stream

This potentially demonstrates how effects from a tributary stream might propagate to the main stream with which it converges. The actual magnitude of stream flow reduction in a high water use scenario may be considered significant only during drought conditions. This underscores the importance of understanding the

implications of withdrawal timing and duration on potentially vulnerable valleys. Incorporation of model transience would help address this uncertainty. The spatial distribution of changes to stream flow is consistent between sources, with the exception of the municipal pumping scenarios (Fig. 10, cross-section 8). This location exemplifies an instance of “shared response” between check details stream flow and the water table. At this location, the municipal cone of depression is greatest when water is taken only from the municipal well while the stream flow reduction is comparably small. When the burden of water source is shared with withdrawals from the

nearby stream, the water table impact is alleviated (Fig. 8A) while the stream flow reduction intensifies (Fig. 10). Intuitively, stream flow is reduced most when water is taken only from the streams. Results demonstrate that the water table is insensitive to stream withdrawals (Fig. 8). It can be inferred that stream–aquifer connectivity distributes the stream withdrawals over a larger area than concentrated pumping schemes, thus resulting in insignificant drawdown. Only when municipal pumping is added (Fig. 10A) water table and stream flow changes simultaneously emerge. Distributed pumping has the least effect on stream flow because ATM/ATR inhibitor review of the distribution of water burden. mafosfamide Many low-capacity wells draw uniformly less from overlying streams than fewer high-capacity wells. If stream flow protection is prioritized based on suggested vulnerability, it is important to note that a distributed pumping source causes the least reductions to stream flow. There are two aspects of this model that are significant in dictating model results: the volume of water input to the system as a result of aquifer recharge and the connectivity of the aquifer and overlying streams

as a result of streambed conductance. In order to determine the impacts of these parameters a sensitivity analysis was conducted. The greatest uncertainty in this model is the value estimated for applied recharge, which is associated with infiltration of direct valley precipitation. Recharge is the main parameter that governs how much water is available to the system. Increasing recharge decreases the percent reduction in stream flow, mainly in areas of the stream network that experience the greatest change (Fig. 11A, cross-sections 7–9). As expected, the greatest reduction to streamflow is identified under zero-recharge, or severe drought, conditions. The hydraulic connectivity between surface water and groundwater is primarily controlled by streambed conductance.

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