Importantly, they were also able to demonstrate the persistence of these beneficial effects 5 years after the procedure. Furthermore, they showed the 5-year survival of patients who received stem cells was significantly better than that of controls (96% vs. 84%, P <0.01). The results of clinical trials in ischemic heart failure are difficult to compare since stem cell types,
their amount, and delivery routes were different. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Based on available preclinical and clinical data, however, it seems that bone marrow stem cells (CD34+, mesenchymal stem cells) delivered intramyocardially yielded the best results. Although a significant step forward was made in stem Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cell therapy for ischemic heart failure, several important questions regarding
stem cell type, delivery method, amount of cells to be transplanted, and, above all, timing of stem cell transplantation in patients with ischemic heart disease remain unanswered and represent a focus of future research in this field. Stem Cell Therapy for Selleckchem VE821 Nonischemic Heart Failure Stem Cells and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Remodelling in Nonischemic Heart Failure One-third of heart failure patients have a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).28 DCM is thought to result from various pathogenic mechanisms including genetic factors, mechanical stress, and intoxication. However, about two-thirds of DCM patients show evidence of a myocardial viral genomic persistence, indicating that inflammation may be the most prevalent cause for DCM development.29 The progression to DCM may be caused by the direct Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical adverse effects of
the pathogen upon the myocardial tissue or by activation of autoreactive lymphocytes via molecular mimicry, which leads to unfavorable changes in ventricular myocytes and extracellular matrix. Changes in cardiac myocytes after viral infections result from direct infection-dependent injury and by infection-induced autoimmune response. Besides their potential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effects on cardiac myocyte regeneration, stem cells could improve cardiac function in DCM through potential paracrine effects, which include: (1) secretion of factors that attenuate apoptosis of endogenous cardiomyocytes Adenosine and endothelial cells;30 (2) promotion of angiogenesis; (3) activation of resident cardiac stem cells;31 or (4) supplying large amounts of anti-inflammatory factors.32 Alternatively, stem cell transplantation may neutralize circulating autoantibodies that are present in DCM via similar mechanisms that are thought to be responsible for the effects of CD34+ cell transplantation in the treatment of severe autoimmune diseases, such as therapy-resistant rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.33 According to this postulate, stem cells might be able to limit the overactivated immune response in DCM by tolerization of autoreactive T and B cells.