Invasive ants are notorious for displacing local ant species thro

Invasive ants are notorious for displacing local ant species through competition. Competitive displacement of native species can occur through interference and or resource competition. However, for invasive ants, little is known about the relative importance of competitive displacement. We studied competitive interactions of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata,

one of the most destructive invasive ant species, with two other ant species, Monomorium subopacum and Pheidole teneriffana. We compared the species’ foraging behavior and studied their aggressive interactions around food baits for the short (2 h) and long (21 days) term selleck compound in the laboratory. Surprisingly we found that in short term experiments Selisistat price W. auropunctata had the poorest foraging abilities of the three species studied: it took the workers the longest to locate the bait and retrieve it; in addition they retrieved the lowest amount of food. When both W. auropunctata and M. subopacum were foraging the same bait, in the short term competition experiment, W. auropunctata workers did not defend the bait, and ceased foraging when encountered with competition. The long-term experiments revealed that W. auropunctata had the advantage in aggressive interactions over time; they eliminated seven of nine M. subopacum’s nests while consuming some of the workers and brood. According to our laboratory studies,

W. auropunctata cannot be considered an extirpator species, unless it has a substantial numerical advantage, in contrast with previous assumptions. Otherwise it may behave as an insinuator species, i.e. the workers do not initiate aggression and by staying undetected they can continue foraging adjacent to dominant species.”
“The authors report a case of a 52-year old female previously followed at the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic with the diagnosis of Fibromyalgia (FM). Approximately 2 years

after this diagnosis, she presents with a 2(nd) degree burn in a hand, as a result of thermal hypoesthesia. The patient described hipostesia of the distal upper and lower limbs, incontinence of the anal sphincter and chronic diarrhoea with progressive worsening. The electromiography showed sensory-motor axonal polyneuropathy, chronic, moderate MEK inhibitor review to severe. The muscle and nerve biopsy showed deposition of amyloid substance. The search for TTR Met 30 was positive, confirming the diagnosis of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. This is the first reported case of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy as part of the differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia.”
“BackgroundDepression and anxiety are common in residents of elderly homes. Both disorders have negative effects on functioning, well-being and health-care utilisation. Besides treatment, prevention can be an option to reduce the burden of mental disorders.

Of the 463 patients


Of the 463 patients

two ALK targets have died and three were lost to follow-up. The mean radiological and clinical follow-up was for 43 months (6 to 90).\n\nWe have revised 13 resurfacings (2.8%) including seven for pain, three for fracture, two for dislocation and another for sepsis. Of these, nine had macroscopic and histological evidence of metallosis. The survival at five years was 95.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.1 to 96.8) for revision for all causes and 96.9% (95% CI 95.5 to 98.3) for metallosis.\n\nThe rate of metallosis related revision was 3.1% at five years. Risk factors for metallosis were female gender, a small femoral component, a high abduction angle and obesity. We do not advocate the use of the Birmingham Hip resurfacing procedure in patients with these risk factors.”
“Photoluminescence (PL) imaging over a large area (4.5 x 4.5 cm(2)) is demonstrated on polycrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells on glass. PL imaging is a well-established technique for characterisation of silicon wafers and wafer-based solar cells, however its application to crystalline silicon thin films on glass was not possible due to low material quality and volume, and IR noise from the glass substrate. This paper reports methods to overcome these limitations, the design of a thin-film silicon PL imaging system, examples of PL images selleck screening library of silicon films at

different processing stages and preliminary VX-770 purchase findings. It is demonstrated that the observed PL images qualitatively correlate with the silicon film crystal grain structure and quality. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this

potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications – including addition to infant formulae – as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products.

Fusion of vesicles containing TCR zeta and LAT at the synaptic me

Fusion of vesicles containing TCR zeta and LAT at the synaptic membrane determines not only the nanoscale organization of phosphorylated TCR zeta, ZAP70, LAT, and SLP76 clusters but also the presence of phosphorylated LAT and SLP76 in interacting see more signaling nanoterritories.

This mechanism is required for priming IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and may contribute to fine-tuning T cell activation breadth in response to different stimulatory conditions.”
“Objective. To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic Status (SES) is independently related to physical and mental health Outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).\n\nMethods. Data derived from the first 3 waves of the Lupus Outcomes Study, a telephone survey of 957 patients with confirmed SLE diagnoses, recruited from clinical and non-clinical sources. Residential addresses were geocoded to U.S. Census block groups. Outcome measures included the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, a self-reported assessment of SLE symptoms; the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning scored and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score of >= 19 points. Multivariate analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and other demographic and health-related covariates.\n\nResults. After adjustment, selleck inhibitor lower individual SES, measured by education, household income, or poverty status, was associated with all outcomes. In models that did not include

individual SES, low neighborhood SES (> 30% of residents in poverty) was also associated with Poor outcomes. After adjustment for individual SES, demographic, and health-related covariates, only CES-D >= 19 remained associated with neighborhood SES: 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38-56%] versus 35% (95% CI 32-37%).\n\nConclusion. Individual SES is associated with physical and mental health outcomes in persons with SLE. Low neighborhood SES contributes independently to high levels of depressive symptoms. Future research should focus On mechanisms underlying these differences.”
“We report an 18-month-old

boy who presented with aniridia and megalocornea but no evidence of glaucoma. In children with aniridia, glaucoma often does not present with buphthalmos; because, it typically PFTα clinical trial manifests in preadolescence or adolescence, as progressive changes occur in the drainage angle. Nlegalocornea, however, in the presence of anifidia strongly suggests glaucoma in early infancy. This case represents a previously unreported association of aniridia and megalocornea in an otherwise-healthy child with good vision.”
“One of the uses for silicone coatings is as foul release coatings on ship hulls. Most studies on silicone coating’s release behavior have focused on coatings with uniform thickness. These studies have shown that the force required to remove pseudobarnacles, modeled as epoxy studs, from thin silicone coatings decreases as the thickness increases.

“Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary art

“Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure >= 25 mm Hg and is a recently recognized complication of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. There is significant selleck chemicals llc epidemiological overlap with kidney disease and the underlying causes of

World Health Organization group 1-4 pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arteriopathy, left heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and chronic thromboembolic disease, respectively). In addition, an entity of ‘unexplained pulmonary hypertension,’ group 5, in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease has emerged, with prevalence estimates of 30-50%. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in this population is due to alterations in endothelial function, increased cardiac output, and myocardial dysfunction leading to elevated left heart filling pressure, with recent data suggesting that left heart dysfunction may account for the vast majority of pulmonary hypertension in patients with kidney disease. Pulmonary hypertension is an independent predictor of increased mortality in patients on dialysis and those undergoing kidney transplantation. This review summarizes what is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, transplantation outcomes, mortality, and treatment of pulmonary hypertension GSK923295 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor in patients with chronic kidney disease

and end-stage renal disease.”
“Copper Vorinostat ic50 is an essential element and an integral component of various enzymes. However, excess copper is neurotoxic and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, prion conditions, and other disorders. Although mechanisms of copper neurotoxicity are not fully understood, copper is known to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. As oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), we determined whether mPT plays a

role in copper-induced neural cell injury. Cultured astrocytes and neurons were treated with 20 mu M copper and mPT was measured by changes in the cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m), employing the potentiometric dye TMRE. In astrocytes, copper caused a 36% decrease in the Delta Psi m at 12 h, which decreased further to 48% by 24 h and remained at that level for at least 72 h. Cobalt quenching of calcein fluorescence as a measure of mPT similarly displayed a 45% decrease at 24 h. Pretreatment with antioxidants significantly blocked the copper-induced mPT by 48-75%. Copper (24 h) also caused a 30% reduction in ATP in astrocytes, which was completely blocked by CsA. Copper caused death (42%) in astrocytes by 48 h, which was reduced by antioxidants (35-60%) and CsA (41%). In contrast to astrocytes, copper did not induce mPT in neurons. Instead, it caused early and extensive death with a concomitant reduction (63%) in ATP by 14 h.

The increasing incidence of breast cancer in Asia and the limitat

The increasing incidence of breast cancer in Asia and the limitations of existing treatments pose additional challenges. In this review, we summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence that indicates how lapatinib, a novel inhibitor that targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1) and ErbB2 may help

PFTα clinicians address four particularly challenging issues in the management of ErbB2+ breast cancer. These issues are: (i) trastuzumab therapy failure, (ii) development of central nervous system metastases, (iii) minimizing toxicity and (iv) selecting the most appropriate partners (chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy) for combination therapy with lapatinib. Lapatinib, in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, such as capecitabine, provides clinical benefits to patients with ErbB2+ breast cancer, including patients who develop progressive disease on trastuzumab. Lapatinib, in combination with non-chemotherapeutic agents, such as letrozole, may also provide AZD1208 cell line a chemotherapy-free treatment option for postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive/ErbB2+ metastatic breast cancer. Encouraging results have also emerged regarding the synergistic effects of lapatinib in combination with other

agents for the treatment of ErbB2+ breast cancer. Promising findings have also been reported for the use of lapatinib to prevent and treat central nervous system metastases. Collectively, these

results indicate that the judicious use of lapatinib, an effective oral therapy with a manageable toxicity profile, can enhance the management of patients with ErbB2+ breast cancer.”
“Background: Drug addiction is a multifactorial disorder. Researchers have posited that an individual’s inherited behavioral propensity or temperament contributes to the disorder by shaping a personality strongly linked with the risk of drug abuse. Further, they hypothesize that the polymorphism of dopamine D2 receptor increases the susceptibility to and severity of addiction. We, therefore, investigated possible associations between dopamine Lazertinib concentration D2 receptor (DRD2) and personality traits among intravenous heroin addicts. Methods: We assessed 93 intravenous heroin addicts and controls using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). We confirmed drug-dependence status using a questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria. We extracted DNA from the subjects’ whole blood and genotyped it for DRD2 allelic variants. Results: Genotype analysis showed a significantly higher frequency for the TaqIA polymorphism among the addicts (69.9%) compared to control subjects (42.6%; Fisher’s exact chi(2), p < .05). We observed no significant differences for other variants between the addicts and controls.

3%) compared with parous women (78 0%) Fear for ECV and depressi

3%) compared with parous women (78.0%). Fear for ECV and depression EDS-scores were find more not related with ECV success rate. Parity, placental location, BMI and engagement of the fetal breech were obstetric factors associated with ECV outcome. There was no relation between fear for ECV and abdominal muscle tone.\n\nConclusion: Fear for ECV and

depression were not related with ECV success rate in this study. Engagement of the fetal breech was the most important factor associated with a successful ECV.”
“Paracryptodira is composed of North American Baenidae and an undefined group of North American and European turtles known from the Middle Jurassic to the mid-Paleocene. Traditional members of Pleurosternidae are included in this group. Whereas the North American record extends into the mid-Paleocene, it was proposed that European non-baenid paracryptodirans disappeared during the Early Cretaceous. However, an analysis of turtle remains from the upper Paleocene of Western Europe revealed the presence of a new paracryptodire, Nepicastat cost herein named Berruchelus russelli. This taxon is distinguished as the only post-Neocomian European

representative of Paracryptodira, and thus increases the European temporal distribution of non-baenid paracryptodirans. Cladistic analyses identify B. russelli as closely related to the Late Cretaceous-middle Paleocene North American Compsemys victa. It is proposed that, after the disappearance of the European Mesozoic paracryptodiran taxa, Europe was recolonized by a paracryptodiran lineage originating from North America, which resulted in B. russelli.”

To compare life expectancies between recently diagnosed HIV-infected patients and age and sex-matched uninfected individuals from the general population.\n\nDesign: National observational HIV cohort in the Netherlands.\n\nMethods: Four thousand, six hundred and twelve patients diagnosed with HIV between 1998 and 2007 and still antiretroviral therapy-naive as of 24 weeks after diagnosis were selected. Progression to death compared to the age and sex-matched general population was studied with a multivariate HDAC inhibitor hazards model in 4174 (90.5%) patients without AIDS events at 24 weeks. Life expectancy and number of life years lost were calculated using the predicted survival distribution.\n\nResults: During 17 580 person-years of follow-up since 24 weeks after diagnosis [median follow-up 3.3 years, interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.8], 118 deaths occurred, yielding a mortality rate of 6.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-8.0] per 1000 person-years. Median CD4 cell counts at 24 weeks were 480 cells/mu l (IQR 360-650). According to the model, the median number of years lived from age 25 was 52.7 (IQR 44.2-59.3; general population 53.1) for men and 57.8 (49.2-63.7; 58.1) for women without CDC-B event. The number of life years lost varied between 0.4 if diagnosed with HIV at age 25 and 1.4 if diagnosed at age 55; for patients with a CDC-B event this range was 1.8-8.0 years.

Management is often challenging because of the multifactorial pat

Management is often challenging because of the multifactorial pathogenesis and underestimation or misdiagnosis of acquired PCI-32765 price bleeding disorders, particularly acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In recent years, growing interest in thromboembolic risk has emerged after the introduction of novel and more effective antimyeloma agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide), which was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly when associated with dexamethasone and multiagent chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients. The clinical impact of bleeding and thrombotic complications in patients with PCD, with emphasis

on MM, will be discussed in this review, reporting the current knowledge about pathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for management.”
“The synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides is

too tedious to scale up for commercialization. However, structurally simplified GDC 0032 mw glycomimetics are commercializable, if they can be synthesized much more easily than the oligosaccharides while having a comparable bioactivity. In this study, we propose a 2-oxabutane (OB) structure as an imitation of the internal monosaccharide units in oligosaccharides. Two trimannoside and three pentamannoside OB-glycomimics were synthesized in remarkably short steps. Among them, Man alpha 1-OB-2Man 10, a trimannoside mimic, showed eight-fold affinity toward concanavalin A (ConA) relative to methyl mannoside in latex agglutination lectin assay and equilibrium dialysis assay (EDA), while the other mimics

showed three-to four-fold affinities. EDA indicated that the bindings between each mimic molecule and a ConA subsite were all in one-to-one stoichiometry and thus these mimics were monovalent ligands, excluding multivalence effect for the high affinities. The strong affinity of 10 could be explained by the occupation of two mannose binding sites of a ConA subsite by its two mannose units. Mimic 10 proved to be even selleck compound a better ligand for ConA than the natural disaccharide Man alpha 1,2Man, while been much more easy to synthesize, thereby illustrating the potential of the approach here presented.”
“Distal gut bacteria play a pivotal role in the digestion of dietary polysaccharides by producing a large number of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that the host otherwise does not produce. We report here the design of a custom microarray that we used to spot non-redundant DNA probes for more than 6,500 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lyases selected from 174 reference genomes from distal gut bacteria. The custom microarray was tested and validated by the hybridization of bacterial DNA extracted from the stool samples of lean, obese and anorexic individuals. Our results suggest that a microarray-based study can detect genes from low-abundance bacteria better than metagenomic-based studies.

Study Design: A prospective study was conducted in 249 preter

\n\nStudy Design: A prospective study was conducted in 249 preterms who were subdivided into three groups: one group (n=83)

was supplemented with Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri, one group with L. rhamnosus (n=83) and the other with no supplementation (n=83). The fungal colonization H 89 in the gastrointestinal tract, the late onset of sepsis and clinical parameters were recorded. A neurological structured assessment was further performed at 1 year of age.\n\nResult: Candida stool colonization was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the control group than in the groups treated with probiotics. The L. reuteri group presented a significantly higher reduction in gastrointestinal symptoms than did the L. rhamnosus and control groups. Infants treated with probiotics showed a statistically significant lower incidence of abnormal neurological outcome than did the control group.\n\nConclusion: The use of both probiotics seems to be effective in the prevention of gastrointestinal

colonization by Candida, in the protection from late-onset sepis and in reducing abnormal neurological outcomes in preterms. Journal of Perinatology (2011) 31, 63-69; doi:10.1038/jp.2010.57; published online 22 April 2010″
“Sinuses of Valsalva are important in assuring the physiological function of the aortic valve. This study evaluates short-term clinical results of the reimplantation technique for aortic valve-sparing root replacement using a new prosthesis with three separate sinuses of Valsalva (sinus prosthesis).\n\nBetween February 2009 and February 2011, a total of 23 patients (20 m/3 f; mean age 52 +/- 14.8 IWR-1-endo inhibitor GSK1210151A clinical trial years; range 24-70 years) with aortic root aneurysm underwent aortic valve-sparing procedures according to the David reimplantation technique using the new sinus prosthesis. Eighteen patients had tricuspid and five patients bicuspid aortic valves. All patients received clinical as well as echocardiographic examinations postoperatively (mean 13 +/- 9.3 months; 0.3-28 months).\n\nThere

was no death and no reoperation of the aortic valve. At latest follow-up, most patients were in New York Heart Association class I (n = 22; 95.7%). In 95.7% aortic valve regurgitation (AR) was 0 or 1+; one patient had AR 2+. Pressure gradients were between the normal range (mean pressure gradient 4.7 +/- 1.9 mmHg). Echocardiographic images demonstrate physiological aortic root dimensions and configuration with three separate sinuses of Valsalva without systolic contact of leaflets to the wall.\n\nThe new sinus prosthesis provides near normal root geometry and hemodynamics in valve-sparing aortic root replacement using the reimplantation technique, applicable for tricuspid and also bicuspid aortic valves.”
“Ptilochronology, the study of feather growth bars, has been used to assess nutritional condition, yet the implementation of this technique can be challenging.

He was then treated with Ceftriaxone for 12 days with full recove

He was then treated with Ceftriaxone for 12 days with full recovery, from a short and long term perspective. Issues concerning the management of CSF leak will be discussed along

with review of the literature. This is the first report of post-traumatic meningitis as a result of mild trauma not involving maxillofacial or basilar fractures. The aim of our report is to raise awareness to this cause of meningitis and to stress the importance of immunizing against Streptococcal pneumoniae, a measure which may have prevented the sequelae in our case.”
“Pharynx is a common site of malignancy in the head and neck region. This study presents a series of 94 cases of pharyngeal malignancy conducted at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand in the Department of Pinometostat mouse Otorhinolaryngology for a period of one year (2009-2010). Angiogenesis inhibitor Mean age at presentation was 56.8 years (age range 18-100 years). Male: Female ratio was 8.4:1.0. Maximum patients belonged to lower socio-economic status as per Kuppuswamy’s classification (2003). Majority of them were farmer (38.2%) by occupation and belonged to rural areas. 90.4% patients had history of tobacco smoking. Dysphagia was the commonest chief complaint. The most common subsite was oropharynx

(51.0%) followed by hypopharynx (45.7%). Ulceroproliferative growth was the most common clinical finding. Histopathologically, squamous cell carcinoma (94.6%) was the commonest. CECT was the commonest and most useful radiological investigation done to see the extent of the disease.”
“An A/G polymorphism (rs3746444) has been identified in the miR-499 gene that can change the conformation of the secondary gene structure and thereby directly

affect binding to target mRNAs and the microRNA (miRNA) maturation process, thus altering protein expression and potentially contributing to cancer susceptibility. Numerous studies investigating the association between the rs3746444 polymorphism and cancers have been published; however, results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To clarify the relationship between the miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis on 14 case-control studies comprising 7189 cases and 8577 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using dominant, recessive, and co-dominant genetic click here models. A publication bias test and subgroup analysis were also performed. Results showed that the G allele was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk compared to the A allele (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.00-1.18). Similarly, moderately elevated risks were also observed in overall analyses in the dominant model (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.01-1.26). Moreover, significantly increased risks were observed in Asian populations (G allele vs A allele: OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.01-1.37; GG vs AA: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07-1.73; dominant model: OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.00-1.

The prediction of similar trans-acting

protein effects wi

The prediction of similar trans-acting

protein effects will be an important challenge in the medical interpretation of human mutations from whole exome sequencing.”
“Background: Internationally there are no defined standards for expressing the performance of home-based pregnancy tests, BTSA1 price nor any pre-defined accuracy standard requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a selection of home-based pregnancy tests relative to their packaging/product insert claims. Methods: Eight home-based pregnancy tests were evaluated using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) urine standards (0, 15, 25 mlU/mL). Testing was performed by a technician and results were read by a technician and a panel of consumer volunteers (each blinded to the expected result) and compared with the expected result based on the manufacturer’s claimed accuracy. Volunteers also completed questionnaires relating to various device attributes. Results: The overall agreement between the technician reading and expected reading from the

hCG concentration was bigger than 90% for the Clearblue (R) DIGITAL, Clearblue (R) PLUS, Confirme (R) Plus, David (R) and Haus (TM) tests, and approximately 80% for Predictor (R) Early; agreement was smaller than 50% for Femitest (R) Jet Ultra and Cyclotest (R) Early tests. Results were available from 72 volunteers (aged 18-45 years). Overall the percentage agreement check details between volunteer result and expected result was bigger than 95% for Clearblue DIGITAL and Clearblue PLUS tests; agreement for all other tests was smaller than 75% (lowest were Cyclotest Early and Femitest Jet Ultra, 33.0% and 39.4%, respectively). The Clearblue DIGITAL test was scored most highly by volunteers in the questionnaires. Conclusions: Many home-based pregnancy tests commonly used by women are not as accurate as their packaging information claims.

International test standards which define appropriate performance characteristics for home pregnancy selleck screening library tests are urgently required.”
“Although studies have shown that arsenic exposure can induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, the exact molecular mechanism of chronic arsenicosis remains unclear. Based on our previous study on human serum, the present study was to determine whether pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plays a role in the damage induced by chronic arsenic exposure in a rat model and to explore the possible signaling pathway involved. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and the arsenite doses administered were 0, 10, and 50 mg/L, respectively. The experiment lasted for 6 months. Our results showed that level of arsenic increased significantly in serum, liver, brain, and kidney in arsenic-exposed groups. It was indicated that PEDF protein was widely distributed in the cytoplasm of various types of cells in liver, brain, and kidney.