e cmdA, C and F) and wild type M145 Introduction of additional

e. cmdA, C and F) and wild type M145. Introduction of additional copies of the functional cmdB or cmdA-F into the mutants could reduce GSK2126458 mw the production of blue pigment to the wild-type level (Figure 6A), confirming that blue pigment over-production was caused by mutation of the genes, and also suggesting that these genes are involved in repression of blue pigment production in M145. Figure 6 Observation of blue-pigment overproduction by the null mutants and transcriptional assay of actII-orf4 of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster. (A) Blue-pigment over-production by the null mutants of cmdB or cmdA-F and complementation

by introduction of the corresponding functional genes. Strains were grown on MS for 3 days at 30°C. The back of the plate is shown. (B) Transcription of actII-orf4 in null mutant of cmdA-F. Total RNA was isolated from solid MS cultures grown for 14, 24, 50, 62, and 74 h, and reverse-transcribed into cDNA for PCR amplification. The 16S rRNA gene of the mutant was used as an internal control. PCR products were electrophoresed in 2% agarose gel at 100 v for 0.5 h. Initiating transcription of the pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-orf4 of actinorhodin biosynthesis at an earlier growth stage in the cmdA-F null mutant In S. coelicolor, pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-orf4 is essential for initiating transcription of the

whole biosynthetic gene cluster of blue-pigment actinorhodin [23]. To study transcription of actII-orf4 in the cmdA-F RG-7388 mw null mutant, we harvested spores/mycelium from MS plates after different growth periods and isolated RNA for RT-PCR. As seen in Figure 6B, transcription of actII-orf4

in the null mutant started as early as 16 h and then reached a maximum at 40 h, ~24 and 34 h earlier than was observed in M145. Discussion Here, we report that an operon of six genes cmdABCDEF (SCO4126-4131) of S. coelicolor, encoding five membrane proteins and one membrane-located ATP/GTP-binding protein, affects differentiation and causes increased production of an antibiotic, actinorhodin. The ΔcmdABCDEF strains reveal aberrant branches and short Dynein aerial hyphae. Expression of cmdB, and therefore presumably of the whole operon, was detectable during vegetative growth, but increased substantially as soon as aerial growth was detectable. Similar conserved gene clusters are also found in other Streptomyces species, e.g. S. avermitilis (SAV4098-4103; [22]), S. griseus (SGR3915-3920; [24]) and S. lividans (Our unpublished data). Serious block in forming aerial hyphae in S. lividans and in the development of coiled aerial hyphae in S. avermitilis were observed when their cmd operons were disrupted. Together, these results indicate that CmdABCDEF proteins mainly affect Streptomyces differentiation early in aerial hyphae formation.

He Y, Zhang WY, Gong M, Huang JY, Tang N, Feng T, Wei GH, He TC,

He Y, Zhang WY, Gong M, Huang JY, Tang N, Feng T, Wei GH, He TC, Bi Y: Low serum concentration facilitates the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Saudi Med J 2011, 32:128–134.PubMed 30. Nabekura T, Yamaki T, Hiroi T, Ueno K, Kitagawa S: Inhibition of anticancer

drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein by rosemary phytochemicals. Pharmacol Res 2010, 61:259–263.PubMedCrossRef 31. Nabekura T, Yamaki T, Kitagawa S: Effects of chemopreventive citrus phytochemicals on human P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1. Eur J Pharmacol 2008, 600:45–49.PubMedCrossRef 32. Shah selleck JP, Kumar S, Bryant CS, Ali-Fehmi R, Malone JM Jr, Deppe G, Morris RT: A population-based analysis of 788 cases of yolk sac tumors: A comparison of males and females. Int J Cancer 2008, 123:2671–2675.PubMedCrossRef 33. de La Motte Rouge T, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Rey A, Morice P, Haie-Meder C, Kerbrat P, Culine S, Troalen F, Lhommé C: Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor. Ann Oncol 2008, 19:1435–1441.PubMedCrossRef 34. Mhaidat NM, Alshogran OY, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, Matalka II, Haddadin WJ, Mahasneh IO, Aldaher AN: Multi-drug resistance 1 genetic polymorphism and prediction of chemotherapy response in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2011, 30:68.PubMedCrossRef 35. Mizutani T, Masuda

M, Nakai E, Furumiya K, Togawa H, Nakamura Y, Kawai Y, Nakahira K, Shinkai S, Y-27632 ic50 TCL Takahashi K: Genuine functions of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). Curr Drug Metab 2008, 9:167–174.PubMedCrossRef 36. Maier P, Fleckenstein K, Li L, Laufs S, Zeller WJ, Baum C, Fruehauf S, Herskind C, Wenz F: Overexpression of MDR1 using a retroviral vector differentially regulates genes involved in detoxification and apoptosis and confers radioprotection. Radiat Res 2006, 166:463–473.PubMedCrossRef 37. Achard-Joris

M, Bourdineaud JP: Heterologous expression of bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins protect Escherichia coli against mercury and zinc contamination. Biometals 2006, 19:695–704.PubMedCrossRef 38. Jackson AL, Linsley PS: Recognizing and avoiding siRNA off-target effects for target identification and therapeutic application. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010, 9:57–67.PubMedCrossRef 39. Caffrey DR, Zhao J, Song Z, Schaffer ME, Haney SA, Subramanian RR, Seymour AB, Hughes JD: siRNA Off-Target Effects Can Be Reduced at Concentrations That Match Their Individual Potency. PLoS One 2011, 6:e21503.PubMedCrossRef 40. Parsons BD, Schindler A, Evans DH, Foley E: A direct phenotypic comparison of siRNA pools and multiple individual duplexes in a functional assay. PLoS One 2009, 4:e8471.PubMedCrossRef 41. Hsieh AC, Bo R, Manola J, Vazquez F, Bare O, Khvorova A, Scaringe S, Sellers WR: A library of siRNA duplexes targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway: determinants of gene silencing for use in cell-based screens. Nucleic Acids Res 2004, 32:893–901.PubMedCrossRef 42.

8 ± 5 5% Figure 1 Mean mortality of Formosan

8 ± 5.5%. Figure 1 Mean mortality of Formosan Decitabine ic50 subterranean termites by Isaria fumosorosea spore solutions. Bars on the same day with the same letter are not significantly different. M. anisopliae strain NRRL 30905 was isolated from dead FST alates and was found to be pathogenic to both FST alates and workers [7]. Spores were previously introduced to termites by individual inoculation [7]. Using the liquid exposure method it was found that on day 7 the 108 spores/ml concentration caused 57.5 ± 7.5%

mortality, which was significantly higher than the 3.8 ± 2.4% and 3.8 ± 1.25% mortality exhibited by the control and the 106 spores/ml concentration, respectively (Figure 2). On day 14, the control and 106 spores/ml concentration were again not significantly different at 6.3 ± 2.4% and 7.5 ± 1.4%, 5-Fluoracil cost respectively, while the 108 spores/ml concentration caused 77.5 ± 13.0% mortality. By day 21 the 108 spores/ml concentration had killed 100 ± 0% of the termites and the 106 spores/ml treatment, at 16.3 ± 4.3% mortality, was still not significantly higher than the control mortality which was 10.0 ± 0% (Figure 2). Figure

2 Mean mortality of Formosan subterranean termites by Metarhizium anisopliae spore solutions. Bars on the same day with the same letter are not significantly different. B. thuringiensis strain 33679 was selected from a culture collection for evaluation against FST. It was originally isolated from diseased insect larvae. Neither of the Bacillus treatments caused significantly higher mortality than the control on days 7, 14 or 21 (Figure 3). On day 21 the mortality rate was 23.8 ± 8.0% for the control, 23.8 ± 4.3% for the106 treatment and 23.8 ± 7.2% for the 108 treatment. On day 7 the control caused 5.0 ± 3.5% mortality, 106 cells/ml caused

7.5 ± 1.4% mortality, and 108 cells/ml caused 10 ± 2.0% mortality. On day 14, the mortality values for the control, the 106 and 108 treatments were 8.8 ± 4.3%, 11.3 ± 2.4% and 13.8 ± 1.3%, respectively. Figure 3 Mean mortality of Formosan subterranean termites by Bacillus thuringiensis spore solutions. Bars on the same day with the same letter are not significantly different. Each of the microbial agents was evaluated for the degree of non-repellency toward termites. Non-repellent agents are less likely to be detected and avoided by termites, thereby increasing the probability of causing a pathogenic effect [20]. Termites Thiamet G were tested by exposure to the three microbes in sand, soil and sawdust. The number of FST remaining in tubes containing an entomopathogen was compared to the number of termites remaining in control tubes following 24 hrs in a paired choice test. Repellency was evident by termite foraging behavior in treated arenas differing significantly from termite behavior in untreated controls. Non-repellency was reported as no statistical difference between the numbers of termites in tubes. There were no significant differences when termites were exposed to I.

(c) Endolysin forward and reverse primers yield a 750-bp PCR prod

(c) Endolysin forward and reverse primers yield a 750-bp PCR product of the parent phage P954 and 2400-bp product of the recombinant phage P954. (d) The holin forward primer and endolysin reverse primer yield a 1000-bp PCR product with parent phage P954 and 2650-bp product of the recombinant phage P954. Both PCR panels include lane 1: PCR buffer (negative control); Pifithrin-�� concentration lane 2: parent phage P954 lysogen B7, lane 3: molecular weight marker (λ/HindIII-EcoRI); lane 4: recombinant phage P954 lysogen H10. Mitomycin C induction of parent and

endolysin-deficient phage P954 We examined the prophage induction pattern and phage progeny release from TSA HDAC in vitro parent and endolysin-deficient phage P954 lysogens. Absorbance and extracellular phage titers

were monitored every hour until the end of induction. Induction of the parent phage P954 lysogen (B7) resulted in cell lysis and gave a phage titer of 1 × 109 PFU/ml. In contrast, the endolysin-deficient phage P954 lysogen did not lyse and gave a phage titer of about 103 PFU/ml (Figure 2). Figure 2 Mitomycin C induction of parent and endolysin-deficient phage P954 lysogens. (a) Growth profiles of the parent (B7) and endolysin-deficient (H10) phage P954 lysogens after Mitomycin C induction showing absorbance of cultures at 600 nm. The graph is representative of two experiments. The error bars represent mean plus standard deviation (n = 3) (b) Phage release into the culture medium from parent (B7) and endolysin-deficient (H10) phage P954 lysogens after Mitomycin C induction. The graph is representative of 2 experiments. Endolysin complementation for buy Sirolimus phage enrichment and enumeration Endolysin-deficient phage P954 could be enriched to titers of up to 5 × 1010 PFU/ml in S. aureus RN4220 that constitutively expressed phage P926 endolysin. This strain was used also to determine titers of the endolysin-deficient phage preparations. When preparations of the endolysin-deficient phage were spotted on a non-complementing host, a zone of lysis

characteristic of “”lysis from without”" was observed at lower dilutions, and no plaques were discernible (Figure 3a). The recombinant phage formed plaques only on the endolysin-complementing host (Figure 3b, c, d). Figure 3 Complementation with heterologous endolysin gene for enrichment of endolysin-deficient phage P954. Ten-fold serial dilutions of endolysin-deficient phage P954 (5 × 1010 PFU/ml) spotted on (a) S. aureus RN4220 lawn and (b) complementing host pGMB540/S. aureus RN4220, which expresses a heterologous endolysin. Plaque assay of enriched endolysin-deficient phage P954 on (c) non-complementing host S. aureus RN4220 and (d) complementing host pGMB540/S. aureus RN4220.

J Clin Ultrasound 2003,31(4):211–213 CrossRefPubMed

J Clin Ultrasound 2003,31(4):211–213.CrossRefPubMed selleck compound 7. Wani I, Rather M, Naikoo G, Amin A, Mushtaq S, Nazir M: Intestinal Ascariasis in Children. World J Surg 2010,34(5):963–8.CrossRefPubMed 8. Baba A, Mudasir S, Sheikh K: Intestinal ascariasis: the commonest cause of bowel obstruction in children at a tertiary care center in Kashmir.

Pediatr Surg Int 2009,25(12):1099–102.CrossRefPubMed 9. Sreevathsa M, Humberto J, Jaffer M: Meckel’s diverticulitis caused by roundworm incarceration. Pediatric Surg Int 1996,11(2–3):179. 10. Zacharakis E, Papadopoulos V, Athanasiou T, Emmanouil Z: An unusual Presentation of Meckel Diverticulum as Strangulated Femoral Hernia. Southern Medical Journal 2008,101(1):96–98.PubMed 11. Malhotra S, Roth D, Gouge D, Hofstetter S, Sidhu G, Newman E: Gangrene

of Meckel’s diverticulum secondary to axial torsion: a rare complication. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998, 93:1373–1375.CrossRefPubMed 12. Bhattacharjee P, Biswas C, Ray D: Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by roundworm. Indian J Gastroenterol 2005, 24:25–6.PubMed 13. Layer T, Jupp R, Maitra T: Slow-release potassium and perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1987, 63:211–212. 14. Karaman A, Karaman I, Erdoğan D, Cavuşoğlu H, Aslan K, Varlikli RG7204 nmr O, Cakmak O: Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by a button battery: report of a case. Surgery today 2007,37(12):1115–6.CrossRefPubMed 15. Hangloo K,

buy Rapamycin Koul I, Safaya R, Koul S, Dhar U, Kumar S, Chrungoo K: Primary ascaridial perforations of small intestine and Meckel’s diverticulum. Indian J Gastroenterol 1990,9(4):287–8.PubMed 16. Tai H, Chu L: Successful treatment of case of panperitonitis caused by perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by ascaris. Tsa Chih Gaoxiong Yi Xue Yuan Tong Xue Hui 1963, 28:89–91. 17. Pujari D, Deodhare G: Ascarideal penetration of Meckel’s diverticulum. Int Surg 1978,63(2):113–4.PubMed 18. Vargas R, Camacho C, García A: Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by Ascaris Lumbricoides. Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2005,70(3):324. 19. Park J, Bruce W, Matthew T, Erin W, Dirk L: Meckel Diverticulum The Mayo Clinic Experience With 1476 Patients (1950–2002). Ann Surg 2005,241(3):529–33.CrossRefPubMed 20. Bani-Hani E, Shatnawi J: Meckel’s diverticulum: comparison of incidental and symptomatic cases. World J Surg 2004,28(9):917–20.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions IW, VS and GN prepared, analysed and revised final manuscript. SW, MM, AA, TS, FP and RW helped in final revision. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The finding of vermiform appendix in inguinal hernia is called Amyand’s hernia. The Amyand’s hernia was described in a 11-year-old boy who presented with inflamed appendix in inguinal hernia sac perforated by a pin.

CrossRef 4 Harraz FA, Sasano J, Sakka T, Ogata YH: Different beh

CrossRef 4. Harraz FA, Sasano J, Sakka T, Ogata YH: Different behavior in immersion plating of nickel on porous silicon from acidic and alkaline fluoride media. J Electrochemical Society

2003,150(5):C277-C284.CrossRef 5. Oskam G, Long J, Natarajan A, Searson P: Electrochemical deposition of PF-562271 nmr metals onto silicon. J Phys D: Appl Phys 1998, 31:1927–1949.CrossRef 6. Bandarenka H, Balucani M, Crescenzi R, Ferrari A: Formation of composite nanostructures by corrosive deposition of copper into porous silicon. Superlattices and Microstructures 2008, 44:583–587.CrossRef 7. Magagnin L, Maboudian R, Carraro C: Selective deposition of thin copper films onto silicon with improved adhesion. Electrochem Solid State Lett 2001,4(1):C5-C7.CrossRef 8. Bandarenka H, Redko S, Nenzi P, Balucani M, Bondarenko V: Optimization of chemical displacement deposition of copper on porous silicon. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012,12(10):8274–8280. 9. Bandarenka H, Shapel A, Balucani M: Cu-Si nanocomposites based on porous silicon matrix. Solid State Phenomena 2009, 151:222–226.CrossRef 10. Bandarenka H, Redko S, Smirnov A, Panarin A, Terekhov S, Nenzi P, Balucani M, Bondarenko

V: Nanostructures formed by displacement FG-4592 nmr of porous silicon with copper: from nanoparticles to porous membranes. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7:477.CrossRef 11. Balucani M, Nenzi P, Crescenzi R, Dolgyi L, Klushko A, Bondarenko V: Transfer layer technology for the packaging of high power modules. In Proceedings of the Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC): September 13–16, 2010; Berlin. New York: IEEE; 2010:3–186. 12. Forskolin Panarin A, Terekhov S, Kholostov K, Bondarenko V: SERS-active substrates based on n-type porous silicon. Appl Surf Sci 2010, 256:6969.CrossRef 13. Balucani M,

Nenzi P, Crescenzi R, Marracino P, Apollonio F, Liberti M, Densi A, Colizzi C: Technology and design of innovative flexible electrode for biomedical application. In Proceedings of the IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference: May 31-June 3, 2011; Lake Buena Vista. New York: IEEE; 2011:1319–1324.CrossRef 14. Peng K, Jie J, Zhang W, Lee ST: Silicon nanowires for rechargeable lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 93:033105.CrossRef 15. Bandarenka H, Redko S, Nenzi P, Balucani M: Copper displacement deposition on nanostructured porous silicon. Nanotech 2011, 2:269. 16. Klushko A, Balucani M, Ferrari A: Mechanical strength of porous silicon and its possible applications. Superlattices and Microstructures 2008, 44:1–4.CrossRef 17. Coulthard I, Sammunaiken R, Naftel SJ, Zhang P, Sham TK: Porous silicon: a template for the preparation of nanophase metals and bimetallic aggregates. Phys Stat Sol (a) 2000, 182:157–162.CrossRef 18. Ogata YH, Sasano J, Jorne J, Tsubou T, Harraz FA, Sakka T: Immersion plating of copper on porous silicon in various solutions. Phys Stat Sol (a) 2000, 182:71–77.CrossRef 19.

In the A549 cells group, tumors formed in each nude mouse on

In the A549 cells group, tumors formed in each nude mouse on selleck the 10th day after the s.c. injection (Figure 4B). Tissues collected from the inoculation site were identified as inflammatory necrosis of the Eahy926 cells group, while in such tissues collected from the A549 cells group, masses of classic tumor microstructure were found (Figure 4C and 4D). Moreover, tumor invasion and metastasis to organs such as the liver and the lungs were not found by histological examination in both groups. Figure 4 Tumorigenicity of Eahy926 and A549 cells in vivo. (A) No tumor mass formed roughly within 14 days after s.c. injection of Eahy926 cells; (B) Tumor mass

formed roughly within 10 days after s.c. injection of A549 cells; (C) On day 14 after s.c inoculation of Eahy926 cells; tissues collected from the inoculative site were identified as inflammatory necrosis in the Eahy926 cells

group; (D) On day 14 after s.c inoculation of A549 cells, classic tumor microstructure was www.selleckchem.com/products/obeticholic-acid.html found in the A549 cells group and the rate of tumorigenicity was 100%. Comparative proteomics analysis Two-dimensional electrophoresis based proteomics approach was performed to determine the differently expressed proteins. The images of 2-D gel of both Eahy926 cells and A549 cells were shown in Figure 5 and 6. Twenty-eight proteins, involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, signal transduction and so on, were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) (Table 1). The PMF and TMS maps of Annexin A2 were presented in Figure 7. Of the 28 proteins identified above, 15 were found overexpressed in Eahy926 cells, while 13 were overexpressed in A549 cells. Table 1 List of identified proteins differentially

expressed between Eahy926 and A549 cells Spot ID Swissa) Gene name Protein name Function Tb) PI Tc) Mr Scored) Idie) Exf) E/A A1 P15121 AKR1B1 Aldose reductase (AR) metabolism 6.56 36099 50 TMS down A2 P04179 SOD2 Superoxide dismutase [Mn] metabolism 8.35 24878 38 TMS down A3 P11413 G6PD Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase metabolism 6.44 59553 276 PMF/TMS down A4 P29401 TKT Transketolase (TK) metabolism 7.58 68519 119 PMF/TMS down A5 P50395 GDI2 Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta metabolism Digestive enzyme 6.11 51807 164 PMF/TMS down A6 P06748 NPM1 Nucleophosim (NPM) metabolism 4.64 32726 116 PMF/TMS down A7 P43490 NAMPT Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase metabolism 6.69 55772 57 TMS down A8 P31947 YWHAQ 14-3-3 protein sigma differation/proliferation 4.68 27871 57 TMS down A9 P07355 ANXA2 Annexin A2 (Annexin?) calcium ion binding 7.56 38677 347 PMF/TMS down A10 P10809 HSPD1 60 kDa heat shock protein molecular chaperone 5.70 61187 370 PMF/TMS down A11 O75306 NDUFS2 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase metabolism 7.21 52911 37 TMS down A12 P60891 PRPS1 Ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase? metabolism 6.56 35194 103 PMF/TMS down A13 P15559 NQO1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase metabolism 8.

In addition to this, the data suggests that ingestion of unproces

In addition to this, the data suggests that ingestion of unprocessed protein together with carbohydrate during 120 min of submaximal cycling does not improve performance in a subsequent 5-min mean-power test compared to ingestion

of carbohydrate alone. This is in line with results from several other studies [2, 5, 6]. All three beverages investigated Wnt inhibitor in this study contained carbohydrate levels corresponding to intake of 60 g·h-1. This should have ensured maximal rates of exogeous carbohydrate oxidation [1]. In each of the two beverages containing protein, the protein fraction corresponded to an intake of about 15 g·h-1, increasing the overall caloric content of these beverages. Accordingly, the apparent lack of an ergogenic effect of supplying an iso-carbohydrate

beverage with protein or hydrolyzed protein suggests that protein offers no acute caloric advantage for a performing athlete. In agreement with this, the three beverages were associated with similar RER values throughout the prolonged submaximal exercise, suggesting that protein ingestion did not result in a major metabolic shift towards amino acid oxidation or fatty acid. As for the Nutripeptin™-containing beverage, this lack of a metabolic shift contrasts the hypothesized role of the supplement as a signal that provides a switch towards fatty acids. Nevertheless, NpPROCHO ingestion but not PROCHO was associated with a possible Y-27632 chemical structure ergogenic effect, despite the fact that the

two beverages isoprotein-caloric. Notably, for both of the protein-containing beverages the ingested protein seemed to be absorbed and catabolized, as evaluated from the similar increases in blood concentrations of the protein-degradation by-product BUN measured subsequent to 120 min of steady-state cycling. An interesting consequence of the correlative relation between NpPROCHO performance and athletic performance level was that the beverage resulted in lowered performance in the better athletes. As touched upon in the previous discussion this could be an effect of the specific protocol utilized in this study and the outcome TCL may have been different if the pre-exhaustive cycling phase had been longer-lasting. These results are not easy to explain based on current knowledge, especially as the PROCHO beverage did not result in a similar correlation. A speculative explanation could be a potential difference in the insulinogenic response offered by the two beverages. Previous studies have at least shown that ingestion of hydrolyzed protein is associated with a substantially greater insulinogenic response than ingestion of intact protein [27, 28]. Mechanistically, this response has been linked to hypoglycaemia, and has been linked to lowered physical performance during early phases of exercise [29].

Clin Infect Dis 2001, 32:E97–9 PubMedCrossRef 6 Schönberg-Norio

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BN and JB declare no conflict of interest Open Access This artic

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