Ef-Tu was also over-expressed in the wild type strain of Lactobacillus crispatus as compared to an isogenic mutant that lost the aggregative phenotype and strengthening the
claim for a role in adhesion . Moreover, in the citrus pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, Ef-Tu was reported to be up-regulated in biofilms Liproxstatin-1 molecular weight . Recent work demonstrated that in X. a. pv. citri, DnaK is necessary for the bacteria to achieve full virulence . Several proteomics reports associate the up-regulation of DnaK to biofilm formation. Among them, a dnaK knock-down mutant of Streptococcus mutans with reduced levels of DnaK (<95%) shows impaired biofilm-forming capacity , while DnaK expression was up-regulated in a Prevotella intermedia biofilm-forming strain when compared to a variant lacking biofilm formation . Several proteins that were enriched in the categories ‘metabolic process’, ‘generation of precursor metabolites and energy’, ‘catabolic process’ and ‘biosynthetic process’ showed altered expression patterns in X. a. pv. citri biofilms. A number of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were also AL3818 manufacturer detected as differentially expressed in the biofilm compared to planktonic cultures. Since the TCA cycle plays a central role in metabolism, our finding indicates
that the two lifestyles may have markedly different metabolic and energy check details requirements. The three differentially expressed enzymes of the TCA cycle are citrate synthase (XAC3388, spot 235), malate dehydrogenase (XAC1006,
spot 98) and dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (XAC1534, spot 121). Citrate synthase catalyzes the first reaction in the TCA cycle converting oxaloacetate and acetyl-coenzyme A into citrate and coenzyme A (CoA). Incidentally, it has been observed that a citrate synthase of Burkholderia cenocepacia is necessary for optimum levels of biofilm formation and virulence . In Geobacter sulfurreducens, uniform expression of citrate synthase genes was noted throughout biofilms . The second over-expressed protein in biofilms was identified as malate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-malate to oxaloacetate, and the synthesis of this enzyme 6-phosphogluconolactonase is influenced by cell growth conditions such as oxygenation and the nature of carbon substrates . Succinate dehydrogenase (spot 591) was down-regulated in the biofilm. Succinate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate, donating FADH2 for oxidative phosphorylation. In the presence of oxygen, the TCA cycle operates as an oxidative pathway coupled to aerobic respiration. Under oxygen-limiting conditions, the TCA cycle operates as reductive (incomplete) pathway dedicated largely to the synthesis of precursors blocking the steps from α-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA.