“Reactive extrusion was employed to graft itaconic anhydride (IA) onto polyethylene, using thermally induced peroxide decomposition. It was found that an increase in IA concentration lead to an increase in the degree of grafting (DOG), but only up to 6 wt % IA. Using di-cumyl peroxide (DCP)
as the initiator resulted in a higher Selleck SC75741 DOG compared to di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) and required less reaction time to achieve the same DOG. However, raising the IA concentration also resulted in an increase in cross-linking. Increasing the initiator concentration from 0.2 to 2 wt % resulted in a higher DOG. However, 5 wt To initiator showed similar results compared to using 0.2 wt % due to termination by disproportionation, which has been shown to be more prevalent at high initiator concentrations. Degradation was clearly observed by the inability to form a continuous extrudate during extrusion as well as discolouration. A residence time of more than 50 seconds, using DCP and 120
s for DTBP didn’t offer any further selleck chemicals llc increase in the DOG and also resulted in more pronounced degradation. Optimizing grafting is therefore a trade-off between maximal DOG and minimizing side reactions. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 3118-3126, 2010″
“Purpose: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor 18 (FACT-EGFRI-18) is a patient-reported outcomes questionnaire developed to assess the effect of EGFRI on patients. The FACT-EGER-18 was translated into Dutch and evaluated in order to document that the translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population.
Method: Translation of www.selleckchem.com/products/vx-661.html the FACT-EGFRI-18 from English to Dutch was accomplished by employing the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) multilingual translation methodology. Ten native-speaking residents of the target country who reported
EGFRI associated dermatological adverse events (dAEs) were asked to review the translation of the harmonized FACT-EGFRI-18.
Results: Participants generally found the Dutch FACT-EGFRI-18 easy to understand and complete. In addition, the translation retained the original meaning of the FACT-EGFRI-18 items and instructions. Based on the results of the cognitive debriefing interviews, no changes to improve clarity and comprehension of translations were identified.
Conclusions: The Dutch FACT-EGFRI-18 demonstrates content validity and linguistic validity, and was found conceptually equivalent to its English source, thus confirming linguistic validation. The results suggest that the Dutch FACT-EGFRI-18 can be applied to measure dAE related health related quality of life in Dutch-speaking patients undergoing EGFRI therapy. Formal validation of the Dutch FACT-EGFRI-18 is ongoing. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.