Different enzyme inducers, such as veratryl alcohol, Tween-80 and

Different enzyme inducers, such as veratryl alcohol, Tween-80 and CuSO(4) at concentrations of 2 mM, 0.5% (v/w) and 3 mmole/kg, respectively were also tested. Use of veratryl alcohol and Tween-80 resulted in maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity of 17.36 +/- 0.5, 540.2 +/- 5.1, 631.25 +/- 14, and 507.5 +/- 26.87 U/gds (units/gram dry substrate), respectively, for different wastes. Maximum lignin peroxidase (UP) activity of 141.38 +/- 3.39 and 14.1 +/- 0.5 U/gds was

attained with pomace and pulp and paper, respectively. eFT-508 Laccase activities were found to be insignificant for all wastes. Addition of Tween-80 and CuSO(4) resulted in highest values of MnP activity of 17.4 +/- 0.6, 291 +/- 2.8, 213.5 +/- 3, and 213.2 +/- 3.2 U/gds for fishery waste, brewery waste, pomace and pulp and paper industry sludge, respectively.

Addition of CuSO(4) to the culture medium enhanced laccase activity. Maximum laccase activities of 738.97 +/- 9.2, 719.97 +/- 14.6, 308.8 +/- 12.1, and 94.44 +/- 1.2 U/gds were obtained for brewery waste, pomace, pulp and paper industry sludge and fishery waste, respectively. Brewery wastes and pomace served as excellent sources for the production of MnP, LiP and laccases. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Retrospective analysis of matched cohorts undergoing surgery for unilateral lumbar radiculopathy using either a traditional midline or tubular retractor approach.

Objective. To document the AZD1208 molecular weight clinical outcome after lumbar decompression for unilateral radiculopathy, using validated, patient-based outcome measures.

Summary of Background Data. Minimal objective data are available comparing the patient-based clinical outcomes between lumbar decompressive procedures utilizing traditional

midline or tubular retractor approaches.

Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed for two matched cohorts of patients undergoing decompressive surgery for unilateral lumbar radiculopathy: one group using a tubular retractor approach and a second group with a traditional midline approach. Demographic and surgical data were collected for each group. All patients completed preoperative and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, and visual LGK-974 analog scale measures of back and leg pain. The cohorts were compared to determine whether there were any differences in patient-based clinical outcomes.

Results. At a mean follow-up of 20.2 and 24.7 months, respectively, the tubular retractor and traditional midline approach groups both achieved significant improvements in physical component scores (Short Form-12), Oswestry Disability Index, and visual analog scale for both back and leg pain compared with their preoperative statuses. Mental component scores (Short Form-12) remained largely unchanged in both groups. There were no significant differences in outcome between the surgical approaches with regards to patient-based outcome measures.





The MK-1775 nmr risk of maternal rubella infection in the outbreak was as follows: non-immunized pregnant woman and pregnant woman with a rubella HI antibody titer < 64 and low IgG AI.”

bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients, the surgeon’s operative view is often obscured by the hypertrophic fatty left lobe of the liver. The use of a conventional liver retractor mandates an additional subxiphoid wound, resulting in pain and scar formation, in addition to the risk of iatrogenic liver injury during retractor insertion. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple, rapid, and safe technique for liver retraction-V-shaped liver suspension technique (V-LIST)-by using a Penrose drain and laparoscopic stapler. A silicone Penrose drain was inserted into the peritoneal cavity and stapled to

the pars condensa of the lesser omentum and parietal peritoneum using a laparoscopic stapler. The left lobe of the liver was retracted by the V-shaped suspension. At the end of the surgery, the drain could be easily removed. In October 2009-February 2010, 14 patients underwent liver retraction with the use of this technique. We performed 12 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses and 2 sleeve gastrectomies. This series also included three cases of single incision transumbilical laparoscopic surgery. The mean time required to complete the liver retraction was 8 min 21 s (range, 2-18 min 40 s). Retraction was appropriate in all patients, without the need for additional retractors or conversion. There were no V-LIST-related perioperative complications. Our V-LIST technique using a Penrose drain

is safe and simple. It has potential applications learn more in single incision laparoscopic bariatric procedures.”
“Dolutegravir, a next-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration ASP2215 mw to treat antiretroviral therapy-naive as well as treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals, including those who have been treated with other integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Dolutegravir is the first stand-alone agent in its class, with a pharmacokinetic profile that allows once-daily administration without the requirement for pharmacologic boosting. It is metabolized primarily by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 (UGT1A1) and is expected to have a limited propensity for drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, dolutegravir retains significant virologic activity against raltegravir- or elvitegravir-associated HIV-1 resistance mutations.”
“Hypertension management guidelines recommend titrating antihypertensive drugs stepwise every 4-6 weeks. We compared efficacy and safety of early versus late titration after 10 weeks’ treatment with irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Hypertensive patients uncontrolled on monotherapy were randomized into two groups. In the early titration group (E), patients received irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 150/12.

In 1 case, treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual

In 1 case, treatment was carried out under ultrasound and manual control.

Results. All lesions showed more than 70% regression after the first ILP session, and the treatment outcome was satisfactory. There were no serious complications, such as bleeding or invasive infection. Ultrasonography was useful

for guiding laser treatment in the oral cavity.

Conclusion. Intralesional photocoagulation treatment with a KTP laser is effective and safe for treatment of a vascular lesion in the oral cavity. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Salubrinal in vitro Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: 164-172)”
“Chemokines are potent proinflammatory cytokines that are implicated in numerous inflammatory diseases. Proinflammatory gene polymorphisms lead to variations in the production and concentration of inflammatory proteins. We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes (MCP-1 A-2518G and CCR2-V64I) and bladder cancer risk. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP assays in 72 bladder

cancer patients and 76 unrelated age-matched healthy controls. There were significant differences in the frequencies of the MCP-1 A-2518G (P = 0.012) and CCR2-V64I genotypes (P = 0.004) between the controls and patients. The MCP-1 A-2518G GG genotype frequencies for controls and cases were 0.039 and 0.11, respectively; individuals who had the GG genotype had a 3-fold increased risk of bladder cancer (P = 0.08). The CCR2-64I/64I genotype frequencies for controls and cases were 0.02 and 0.13, respectively; subjects carrying the 64I/64I genotype SNX-5422 clinical trial had a 5.9-fold increased risk of bladder cancer compared to the other genotypes. Individuals carrying the CCR2-V64I heterozygote or homozygous variant genotype (64I/64I + wt/64I) had a 2.9-fold increased risk of bladder cancer compared with the wild-type genotype (wt/wt). CCR2-V64I heterozygote or homozygous wild-type genotype (wt/wt + wt/64I) frequencies were significantly decreased

in the patient group compared with controls. We conclude that CCR2-64I is a new risk factor for bladder cancer.”
“Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important opportunistic pathogens implicated in urogenital infections and complicated pregnancy. We aimed to study the role of these pathogens in symptomatic www.sellecn.cn/products/YM155.html and asymptomatic pregnant women and determine their clinical significance and antibiotic susceptibility.

Methods: One hundred pregnant women were included in the study, 50 symptomatic patients and 50 asymptomatic controls. Duplicate endocervical samples were taken from each individual and analyzed using the Mycoplasma IST-2 kit and A7 agar medium. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and pristinamycin using the Mycoplasma IST-2 kit.

Results: Twelve symptomatic pregnant women had spontaneous abortions. Of these, eight (66.

61, p = 0 001) and persisted in multivariate models controlling f

61, p = 0.001) and persisted in multivariate models controlling for single lung transplant

and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The increased risk was seen for both NTM colonization and NTM disease. Among the patients who died, non-NTM infection was a more common contributing factor in the cause of death for the NTM infection group (44% vs 12%, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection is common after lung transplantation. NTM colonization and treated acute rejection are risk factors for NTM disease. NTM infection is associated with increased risk of mortality independent of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant IWR-1-endo in vivo 2011:30:790-8 (C) 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated

on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.

Already in the beginning of the 18(th) century Swedish physicians recommended Nocodazole solubility dmso Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan

Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank.

Haartman’s work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it.

Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770′s and Haartman analysed the OSI-744 in vitro situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.

In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844.

The highest content of aginoside, 2 9 mg/g dw, was detected in th

The highest content of aginoside, 2.9 mg/g dw, was detected in the root. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aginoside was evaluated for the first time against phytopathogens. This compound showed significant (P < 0.05) antifungal activity depending on the concentration. (C) 2013 Phytochemical

Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Empiric use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics could delay tuberculosis (TB) treatment and lead to FQ-resistant TB.

METHODS: We examined the impact of FQ use on TB outcomes, including smear BAY 73-4506 datasheet status, treatment delay and FQ resistance, through a retrospective cohort study of 440 FQ-exposed and 511 non-exposed patients in a gold mining community in South Africa. We considered both recent (<= 100 days before sputum collection) and distant exposure (<= 1 year). We examined 201 and 180 isolates from FQ-exposed and non-exposed individuals for the presence of gyrA mutations.

RESULTS: Patients recently exposed to >= 5 days of FQ were less likely to be smear-positive (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.11-0.63),

with an increased time to treatment (time ratio 2.02, 95%CI 1.19-3.44). The strength of association decreased when we considered distant exposure. Adjusting for smear status nullified the effect of MLN2238 ic50 FQ exposure on treatment delay. We detected a gyrA mutation in one isolate (0.5%) taken from an individual exposed to FQ for 8 days.

CONCLUSION: FQ exposure is associated with treatment delay, mediated by negative smear status. Short exposures to FQ do not routinely lead to resistance encoded by gyrA mutations. We recommend prudent use of FQ in settings with a high burden of human immunodeficiency virus and AZD9291 research buy TB.”
“SETTING: Better integration of treatment support for people living with tuberculosis

(TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a challenge in many settings, and has been identified as a service priority.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact, compared to directly observed therapy, of a TB treatment intervention modelled on the community antiretroviral treatment (ART) support programme in South Africa.

DESIGN: An interrupted time-series design was used, including five intervention clinics and five comparison clinics. Data were collected from January 2005 to March 2008 and analysed using Poisson regression.

RESULTS: Between April 2007 and March 2008, a total of 71% of all new TB patients starting treatment at the intervention clinics were placed on the intervention. There were no significant differences in cure or treatment success rates for new TB patients between intervention and comparison clinics. There was a small improvement in smear conversion rates in intervention clinics when compared to comparison clinics.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the severity of hypoxic c

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the severity of hypoxic changes and oxidative DNA damage are greater in the placenta

of women with early-onset preeclampsia, and that the prolonged preeclamptic conditions may reduce placental blood flow, ultimately leading to FGR.”
“An optofluidic maskless photopolymerization process was developed for in situ negatively charged nanoporous hydrogel [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] fabrication. The optofluidic maskless lithography system, which NU7441 DNA Damage inhibitor combines a high power UV source and digital mirror device, enables fast polymerization of arbitrary shaped hydrogels in a microfluidic device. The poly-AMPS hydrogel structures were positioned near the intersections of two micro-channels, and were used Selinexor molecular weight as a cation-selective filter for biological sample preconcentration. Preconcentration dynamics as well

as the fabricated polymer shape were analyzed in three-dimensions using fluorescein sample and a confocal microscope. Finally, single-stranded DNA preconcentration was demonstrated for polymerase chain reaction-free signal enhancement. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516037]“
“Objective: The objective was to ascertain clinicians’ opinions and current management with isolated (no concomitant morbidity) intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods: Members of the Central Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (CAOG) were surveyed. We considered consensus

to be agreement among 90% of the respondents. Results: The response rate was 36% (137/385). Among the 21 questions on the topic, the only consensus was that none of the respondents informed women of the recurrence rate of IUGR. There was variance in what constitutes IUGR as well as practice patterns for detection and management of suboptimal growth. Ten (7%) of the respondents had at least one litigation involving management of IUGR. Responses from 87 general obstetrician-gynecologists varied significantly from that of BAY 73-4506 33 maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) subspecialists for 48% (10/21) of the survey questions (p < 0.05). Conclusions: There is large practice variation in detection and management of isolated IUGR. This stresses the need for additional studies and a national guideline on its management.”
“This paper reports using femtosecond laser marker to fabricate the three-dimensional interior microstructures in one closed flow channel of plastic substrate. Strip-like slots in the dimensions of 800 mu m X 400 mu m X 65 mu m were ablated with pulse Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm (pulse duration of similar to 120 fs with 1 kHz repetition rate) on acrylic slide. After ablation, defocused beams were used to finish the surface of microstructures. Having finally polished with sonication, the laser fabricated structures are highly precise with the arithmetic roughness of 1.5 and 4.5 nm.

It is shown that the phase transition is due to the condensation

It is shown that the phase transition is due to the condensation of one of the transverse correlations of the selleck compound off-center displacements. Calculation of the phonon properties for both the cubic and the tetragonal phase shows a saturation of the soft mode frequency at similar to 60 cm(-1) near T-p and advocates its order-disorder type mechanism. Our calculation also leads directly to a two mode feature of the dielectric function above T-p [ H. Presting, J. A. Sanjurjo, and H. Vogt, Phys. Rev. B 28, 6097 (1983)]

and the two modes are attributed to the coexistence of renormalized and normal soft mode excitation as a result of strong coupling between the soft mode and the off-center displacements. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3555587]“
“Purpose: To validate a technique for reproducible measurement of the osteochondroma cartilage cap with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to reevaluate the correlation of the thickness of the cartilage cap with pathologic findings to improve noninvasive differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas.


and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the need for informed consent. HIPAA compliance was maintained. After validation of the measurement technique, 101 pathologically confirmed osteochondromas were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographic data, histologic Wnt inhibitor diagnosis, and chondrosarcoma grade were recorded. Two musculoskeletal radiologists used a standardized technique to independently measure the thicknesses of the cartilage caps on CT and MR images; these measurements were compared for interobserver agreement. Agreement between measurements with CT and MR imaging was also evaluated, as were the sensitivity and specificity of both modalities for differentiation of osteochondromas from chondrosarcomas.


Evaluated were 67 benign osteochondromas (from 49 male patients and 18 female patients; mean age, 23.4 years) and Dibutyryl-cAMP 34 secondary chondrosarcomas (from 27 male patients and seven female patients; mean age, 33.2 years). On the basis of the proposed measuring technique, there was 88% interobserver measurement agreement with MR imaging (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%, 94%) and 93% with CT (95% CI: 84%, 98%). The median difference between measurements of cap thickness at CT and MR imaging was 0 cm (25th and 75th percentiles, -3 mm and 1 mm, respectively). With 2 cm used as a cutoff for distinguishing benign osteochondromas from chondrosarcomas, the sensitivities and specificities were 100% and 98% for MR imaging and 100% and 95% for CT, respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed measuring technique allows accurate and reproducible measurement of cartilage cap thickness with both CT and MR imaging.

Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are ava

Depending on the type of exposure, different forms of PEP are available, including vaccines, immune globulins, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Physicians should assess a patient’s potential need for PEP based on several https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyt387.html factors, including the type of exposure, the timing and severity of illness in the source patient, the exposed person’s susceptibility to infectious diseases of concern,

and the relative risks and benefits of the PEP regimen in an individual situation. Immunity to certain infectious diseases can be ensured with prior infection or vaccination, and by serologic testing in patients with a negative or uncertain https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html history. PEP should be given to persons exposed to index cases of pertussis and invasive meningococcal infection regardless of immunization history, and should be given following rabies and tetanus exposure regardless of the length of delay. In general, PEP should be given as soon as possible following a high-risk exposure. Persons exposed to bloodborne pathogens should have baseline testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus antibodies,

and follow-up testing at six weeks, three months, and six months postexposure. (Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(1):25-32. Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“A role for oestrogen in regulating fluid reabsorption in the monkey epididymis was recently selleck chemicals demonstrated. Here, these Studies are extended to identify potential oestrogen-regulated proteins in the cauda region of monkey epididymis treated with vehicle and oestrogen receptor antagonist

(ICI 182780). Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis was used to identify the proteins. The results indicated down-regulation of WNT4 in the ICI-182780-treated monkey cauda. In addition. the Wnt4f mRNA concentration was also reduced in the caput regions of ICI-182780-treated rats and oestrogen receptor knockout mice. WNT4 is a key regulator of gonadal differentiation in humans and mice and plays a pivotal role in early mouse embryogenesis. The results of the present Study establish the presence of WNT4 in the monkey epididymis and its regulation by oestrogen, and Suggest a role for WNT4 in maintaining epididymal homeostasis.”
“The reported incidence of synchronous multiple primary cancer (SMPC) is rare, and it is even less common to observe synchronous solid tumor with a hematological malignancy. We report five cases of solid tumor presented synchronously with hematological malignancy, all observed within a 2 year period at the oncology department of a university hospital in Shanghai, China.

Published by Elsevier B V “
“Objectives: To investigate the

Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Objectives: To investigate the impact of hypovolaemic shock on the aortic diameter in a porcine model, and to determine the implications

for the endovascular management of hypovolaemic patients with traumatic thoracic aortic injury (TTAI).

Materials and methods: The circulating blood volume of seven Yorkshire pigs was gradually lowered in 10% increments. At 40% volume loss, an endograft was deployed in the descending thoracic aorta, followed by gradual fluid resuscitation. Potential changes in aortic diameter during the experiment were recorded using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).

Results: The aortic diameter decreased significantly at all evaluated levels during blood loss. Selleckchem Proteasome inhibitor The ascending aortic diameter decreased on average with 38% after 40% blood loss (range 24 -62%, p = 0.018), the descending thoracic aorta with 32% (range 18-52%, p = 0.018) and the abdominal aorta with 28% (range 15-39%, p = 0.018). The aortic diameters regained their initial size during fluid resuscitation.

Conclusion: The aortic diameter significantly decreases during blood loss in this porcine model. If these changes take place in hypovolaemic TTAI patients as well, it may have implications for thoracic endovascular aortic repair

(TEVAR). Increased oversizing of the endograft, or additional computed tomography (CT) or IVUS imaging after fluid resuscitation for more adequate aortic measurements, may be needed in TTAI patients with considerable blood JPH203 in vivo loss. (C) 2010 European Society for

Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The cellular prion protein (PrPc) undergoes alpha-secretase-derived processing by disintegrins. This cleavage occurs within the 106-126 putative toxic domain of PrPc, yielding two complementary N- and C-terminal fragments referred to as N1 Selleck INCB018424 and C1, respectively. Here we review our recent data showing that these two PrPc-derived products harbor distinct p53-dependent functions. Thus, C1 potentiates staurosporine (STS)-induced caspase-3 activation by upregulating p53 transcription, mRNA levels and activity. Conversely, N1 is protective both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, N1 inhibits STS-induced caspase-3 activation by downregulating p53 in various cell systems and protects rat retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N1 protects cells against C1-induced toxicity. Therefore, our data show that disintegrin-associated processing of PrPc gives rise to two fragments that display opposite effects on p53-dependent cell death and that can functionally interact. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: The early resuscitation occurs in the emergency department (ED) where intensive care unit protocols do not always extend and monitoring capabilities vary.

All these results remind us that drug-drug interaction should be

All these results remind us that drug-drug interaction should be paid much attention when developing celastrol as a promising anti-tumor agent.”
“The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to determine whether disc prosthesis replacement can be equivalent or superior compared with the disc interbody fusion.

Between January, 2005 and June, 2011 we performed microdiscetomy by the anterior approach in 176 patients. We subdivided the total set of patients into two groups. Group A is made up of 84 patients in whom the prosthetic disc was implanted; Group B is made up of 92 patients in whom disc fusion was performed.

In both groups, the radicular pain disappeared and the signs

of spinal cord compression improved or remained stable. Patients of Group A required significantly fewer days of hospitalization and shorter absence from work, and had significant lower scores in the Neck Disability Index (NDI) at 12 KPT-8602 concentration months.


experience demonstrates that the use of disc prosthesis is a safe and effective alternative to interbody fusion.”
“Irrational prescribing practice of antibiotics is an alarming threat which is associated Proteasomal inhibitors with potential risk for patient as well as for whole community. The aim of this questionnaire based survey study is to assess the physicians’ behavior and knowledge regarding the prescription of antibiotics. This study was conducted during January 2012 in Abbottabad, Pakistan. A sample of 120 physicians was selected by stratified sampling technique. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Out of 120 physicians, 116 participated in the study. Out of 116 participants, 82.76

% prescribe antibiotics without any diagnostic test. A total of 81.9 % participants do not perform hypersensitivity test. Out of total, 12.93 % participants do not have any idea about microbial resistance. Furthermore, 81.03 % participants see more do not follow up patient compliance whereas 47.41 % do not consider cost effectiveness. Not a single participant consults a pharmacist during medication prescription. The prescribing practice in our findings is not in accordance with the rational prescribing guidelines.”
“Surgical management of upper cervical spine (UCS) unstable injuries may be challenging as the number of cases requiring this surgery collected in every single center is small. This retrospective study was conducted to analyze the radiographic and clinical results in 12 patients undergoing a posterior occipito-cervical fusion by a polyaxial screws-rod-plate system.

There were eight male and four female patients with a mean age of 73.7 years (range 32-89 years). Six patients presented neurologic deficits at admission. Six patients had sustained major trauma. The remaining six patients had suffered a minor trauma.

Two patients died postoperatively in Intensive Care Unit.