Results: Compared to female WT mice, OPN-null mice did not develop cSCCs. UVB irradiation stimulated OPN protein expression in the dorsal skin by 11 h and remains high at 24-48 h. OPN did not mediate UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia; instead, it protected basal keratinocytes from undergoing apoptosis upon UVB exposure. Likewise, the addition of OPN suppressed UVB-induced OPN-null cSCC cell apoptosis, the activation of caspase-9 activity, and increased phosphorylation of FAK at Y397. Furthermore, the expression of CD44 and FAK in WT mice epidermis was greater than that of
OPN-null mice prior to and during early acute UVB exposure. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that chronic UVB-induced OPN expression protects the survival of initiated basal keratinocytes and, consequently, facilitates cSCC develop. (C) 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published PCI-32765 by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate how joint Small molecule library mouse specific biomechanical loading influences the functional development and phenotypic stability of cartilage grafts engineered in vitro using stem/progenitor cells isolated from different source tissues. Porcine bone marrow derived multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs) and infrapatellar fat pad derived multipotent stromal cells (FPSCs) were seeded in agarose hydrogels and cultured
in chondrogenic medium, while simultaneously subjected to 10 MPa of cyclic hydrostatic pressure (HP). To mimic the endochondral phenotype observed in vivo with cartilaginous tissues engineered using BMSCs, the culture media was additionally supplemented with hypertrophic factors, while the loss of phenotype observed in vivo with FPSCs was induced by withdrawing transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta Cyclopamine molecular weight 3 from the media. The application of HP was found to enhance the functional development of cartilaginous
tissues engineered using both BMSCs and FPSCs. In addition, HP was found to suppress calcification of tissues engineered using BMSCs cultured in chondrogenic conditions and acted to maintain a chondrogenic phenotype in cartilaginous grafts engineered using FPSCs. The results of this study point to the importance of in vivo specific mechanical cues for determining the terminal phenotype of chondrogenically primed multipotent stromal cells. Furthermore, demonstrating that stem or progenitor cells will appropriately differentiate in response to such biophysical cues might also be considered as an additional functional assay for evaluating their therapeutic potential. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The prevalent challenge facing tissue engineering today is the lack of adequate vascularization to support the growth, function, and viability of tissue substitutes that require blood vessel supply. Researchers rely on the increasing knowledge of angiogenic and vasculogenic processes to stimulate vascular network formation within three-dimensional tissue constructs.