Methods: Participants were those enrolled in one of three prior p

Methods: Participants were those enrolled in one of three prior population-based case-control studies of lung cancer who had given a DNA sample. Consent to release de-identified data to dbGaP took place

via mailed forms and follow-up phone calls. Chi-squared tests were used to examine differences in re-contact and consent proportions between groups. Results: A total of 2,471 participants were initially eligible for re-contact. Six hundred and thirty-eight participants were found to be deceased (n = 627) or did not give permission to re-contact (n = 11). Of the 1,833 remaining participants, 42.3% provided written consent, 37.0% could not be located, 13.7% verbally agreed to have their data released but never returned written consent, 5.3% refused, and 1.6% were too ill Duvelisib order at the time of contact. There were significant differences in ability to locate participants by age, race, gender, and case-control status; however, once located, there were no differences in re-consent rates. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that while most previous study participants agreed to release data, a small proportion are opposed to submitting their data to

dbGaP. In addition, it demonstrates the difficulty studies based on existing samples may have in locating inactive participants for re-consent.”
“In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether breast conserving therapy (BCT) compared with mastectomy is associated LY2835219 concentration selleck kinase inhibitor with a negative outcome in terms of distant metastases or death (DMD) and investigated the relation between locoregional recurrence (LRR) and DMD in young breast cancer (BC) patients. This study included a consecutive series of 536 patients a parts per thousand

currency sign40 years of age at diagnosis with pathological T1N0-3M0 BC, treated between 1989 and 2005. A multistate survival model was used to evaluate the influences of local treatment and LRR on DMD, adjusted for potential prognostic factors. Patients were treated with mastectomy (N = 213) or BCT (N = 323). Median age at diagnosis was 36.3 years, with a median follow-up of 9.0 years. The 10-year actuarial cumulative incidence of DMD was 30.6 % after mastectomy and 26.3 % after BCT (P = 0.04). In total, 81 (15 %) LRRs were observed. After BCT, patients had a threefold higher risk of LRR than after mastectomy (HR 2.9; 95 % CI 1.6-5.3). Patients with LRR had a higher risk of DMD compared with patients without LRR (HR 5.5; 95 % CI 2.1-14.5). However, BCT was not negatively associated with DMD-after-LRR (HR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.2-1.1, BCT vs mastectomy). In conclusion, although LRR significantly affected DMD, the increased risk of LRR after BCT compared with mastectomy did not lead to a worse DMD outcome in BC patients a parts per thousand currency sign40 years of age.

Patient outcome was recorded as healing of the ulcer and the pati

Patient outcome was recorded as healing of the ulcer and the patients were followed up

for 6 months or until the wound was healed. The percentage of malnutrition was 62.0% in the DFU patients. The SGA was closely correlated with infection (r=0.64), outcome (r=0.37) and BMI (r=-0.36), all P<0.001. The risk of poor outcome increased with malnutrition Autophagy Compound Library high throughput [odds ratio (OR), 10.6, P<0.001]. The nutritional status of the DFU patients was independently correlated with the severity of infection and outcome (both P<0.001) and Wagner grades and nutritional status (SGA) were independent risk factors for patient outcome (both P<0.001). Nutritional status deteriorated as the severity of the DFU increased, and malnutrition was a predictor of poor prognosis.”
“We present the analytical expression and computer implementation for the second-order energy derivatives of the

electronic excited state with respect to the nuclear coordinates in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets. Here, the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to the full TDDFT is adopted, and therefore the formulation process of TDDFT excited-state Hessian is similar to that of configuration interaction singles (CIS) Hessian. However, due to the replacement of the Hartree-Fock exchange integrals in CIS with the exchange-correlation kernels in TDDFT, many quantitative changes in the derived equations AC220 are arisen. The replacement also causes additional technical difficulties associated with MGCD0103 in vitro the calculation

of a large number of multiple-order functional derivatives with respect to the density variables and the nuclear coordinates. Numerical tests on a set of test molecules are performed. The simulated excited-state vibrational frequencies by the analytical Hessian approach are compared with those computed by CIS and the finite-difference method. It is found that the analytical Hessian method is superior to the finite-difference method in terms of the computational accuracy and efficiency. The numerical differentiation can be difficult due to root flipping for excited states that are close in energy. TDDFT yields more exact excited-state vibrational frequencies than CIS, which usually overestimates the values. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3605504]“
“Background and Objectives\n\nThe aim of the study was to evaluate, in an international collaboration, three lyophilized intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their suitability to standardize and control haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in IVIG products.\n\nMaterials and Methods\n\nTwenty-three laboratories tested candidate IVIG reference reagents consisting of a Positive control (07/306), a Negative control (07/308), and a specifically formulated Limit preparation (07/310) to define the maximum (e.g.

The present study examines the role of a single bout of shallow t

The present study examines the role of a single bout of shallow torpor in the process of

memory consolidation in mice. Adult female C57B1/6NHSD mice were trained on the Morris Water Maze (MWM) task. Immediately following acquisition, the mice were exposed to one of four experimental manipulations for 24 h: fasted at an ambient temperature of 19 degrees C, fasted at 29 degrees C, allowed free access to food at 19 degrees C, or allowed free access to food at 29 degrees C. Mice fasted at 19 degrees C entered a bout of torpor as assessed by core body temperature CT99021 while none of the mice in the other conditions did so. Spatial biases were then assessed with a probe trial in the MWM. During the probe trial, mice that had entered torpor and mice that were fed at 29 degrees C spent twice as much time in the prior target platform location than mice that were fed at 19 degrees C and those that were fasted at 29 degrees C. These

findings demonstrate that, while food restriction or cool ambient temperature independently disrupt memory processes, together they cause physiological changes including the induction of a state of torpor that result in functional preservation of the memory process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: High-throughput genotyping and phenotyping projects of large epidemiological Danusertib in vivo study populations require sophisticated laboratory information management systems. Most epidemiological studies include subject-related personal information, which needs to be handled with care by following data privacy protection

guidelines. In addition, genotyping core facilities handling cooperative projects require a straightforward solution to monitor the status and financial resources of the different projects.\n\nDescription: We developed a database system for an efficient combination and management of phenotypes and genotypes (eCOMPAGT) deriving from genetic epidemiological studies. eCOMPAGT securely buy LY2090314 stores and manages genotype and phenotype data and enables different user modes with different rights. Special attention was drawn on the import of data deriving from TaqMan and SNPlex genotyping assays. However, the database solution is adjustable to other genotyping systems by programming additional interfaces. Further important features are the scalability of the database and an export interface to statistical software.\n\nConclusion: eCOMPAGT can store, administer and connect phenotype data with all kinds of genotype data and is available as a downloadable version at”
“Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has been popularized as an effective, safe, minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of morbid obesity. We performed a pilot study to evaluate gastric emptying of semisolid meals and antral motility following LAGB.

Nr-axSpA represented the majority of patients (67 3%) only if dur

Nr-axSpA represented the majority of patients (67.3%) only if duration of back pain was 1 year and less at the time of referral. Between 1 and 6 years of back pain duration the probability of nr-axSpA and AS was nearly equal (1-3 years: 52.5% and 47.5%, respectively; 3-6 years: 53.7% and 46.3%, respectively). In patients with back pain duration of 6-9 years, AS was more likely (61.1%) to be diagnosed than nr-axSpA (38.9%), and this increased further over time.\n\nConclusions Non-radiographic axial SpA represents an important differential diagnosis of back pain,

especially in patients with recent symptom onset.”
“The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase

that plays a pivotal role in mediating cell size and mass, proliferation, and survival. mTOR has also emerged as an important modulator of several forms of renal disease. mTOR is activated AMPK inhibitor after acute kidney injury and contributes to renal regeneration and repair. Inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin delays recovery of renal function after acute kidney injury. Activation of mTOR within the kidney also occurs in animal models of diabetic nephropathy and other causes of progressive kidney disease. Rapamycin ameliorates several key mechanisms believed to mediate changes associated with the progressive loss of GFR in chronic kidney disease. These include glomerular hypertrophy, PCI-32765 mw intrarenal inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis. mTOR also plays an important role in mediating cyst formation and enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin or one of its analogues represents a potentially novel treatment for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, inhibitors of mTOR improve survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.”
“Pathologic response to preoperative therapy is increasingly

recognized as an important prognostic factor in solid tumors. The impact of pathologic response on survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is not well established.\n\nData on 135 consecutive patients treated with chemoradiation selleck screening library followed by pancreatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head and/or body between July 1987 and May 2009 were reviewed. Histopathologic examination was performed in 107 patients to determine pathologic response, defined as minor (< 50% fibrosis relative to residual neoplastic cells), partial (50-94% fibrosis), or major (95-100% fibrosis).\n\nMinor, partial, and major pathologic response rates were 17% (n = 18), 64% (n = 68), and 19% (n = 21), including a 7% (n = 8) complete pathologic response rate. Pathologic response correlated with R0 resection (P = 0.019), negative lymph nodes (P = 0.006), and smaller tumor size (P = 0.001).

(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“The clustering

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The clustering of risk factors including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension is highly atherogenic along with the excess of remnants from triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. CD36 is involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty learn more acids (LCFAs) in muscles and small intestines. Patients with CD36 deficiency (CD36-D) have postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. To investigate the underlying mechanism of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in CD36-D, we analyzed lipoprotein profiles of CD36-D patients and CD36-knockout (CD36-KO) mice after oral fat loading (OFL). In CD36-D patients, plasma triglycerides,

apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48), free fatty acids (FFAs), and free glycerol levels were much higher after OFL than those of controls, along with increases in chylomicron (CM) remnants and small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles. In CD36-KO mice, lipoproteins smaller than CM in size in plasma and intestinal lymph were markedly increased after OFL and mRNA levels of genes involved in FFA biosynthesis, such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-1 and FAS, were significantly increased. jlr These results suggest that CD36-D

might increase atherosclerotic risk by enhancing plasma level of CM remnants due to the increased synthesis of lipoproteins smaller than CM in size in the intestine.-Masuda, D., K. Hirano, H. Oku, J. C. Sandoval, R. Kawase, M. Belinostat Yuasa-Kawase, Y. Yamashita, M. Takada, K. Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Y. Tochino, M. Koseki, CAL-101 cost F. Matsuura, M. Nishida, T. Kawamoto, M. Ishigami, M. Hori, I. Shimomura, and S. Yamashita. Chylomicron remnants are increased in the postprandial state in CD36 deficiency. J. Lipid Res. 2009. 50: 999-1011.”
“Background Some studies suggest that patients with asthma who are homozygous for arginine at the 16th aminoacid position of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (B16 Arg/Arg) benefit less from

treatment with longacting beta(2) agonists and inhaled corticosteroids than do those homozygous for glycine (B16 Gly/Gly). We investigated whether there is a genotype-specific response to treatment with a longacting beta(2) agonist in combination with inhaled corticosteroid.\n\nMethods In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with moderate asthma were enrolled in pairs matched for forced expiratory volume in 1 s and ethnic origin, according to whether they had the B16 Arg/Arg (n=42) or B16 Gly/Gly (n=45) genotype. Individuals in a matched pair were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive inhaled longacting beta(2) agonist (salmeterol 50 mu g twice a day) or placebo given in a double-blind, crossover design for two 18-week periods.

Amongst the study groups, 312/711 (44%) of intensively treated an

Amongst the study groups, 312/711 (44%) of intensively treated and 127/730 (17%) of conventionally treated patients would have lost their licence at some point during the trial. The risk of licence loss increased with lower mean HbA1c, longer duration of diabetes and younger age

(all P<0.001). Conclusions More than one episode of severe hypoglycaemia within a year was a frequent event in subjects in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, especially in intensively treated patients. If applied to current practice, improving road safety through these changes to European Union regulations could have a substantial impact on drivers who have Type1 diabetes. This see more emphasizes the need to take into account the potential effects of severe hypoglycaemia in those who rely on a driving licence.”
“Asymmetric polysulfone (PSF) membranes were prepared from PSF, Tetronic-1107, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) via immersion precipitation. Pure water was used as the gelation media. The effects of coagulation bath temperature (CBT) (0 and 25 degrees

C), and addition of Tetronic-1107 on the morphology, wettability, and pure water permeation flux (PWF) of the prepared membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, and experimental set up. The contact angle measurements demonstrated that the CYT387 datasheet hydrophilicities of the nanoporous PSF membranes were significantly enhanced by addition of a small amount of Tetronic-1107 surfactant in the casting solution, along with using the lower CBT. It was also found that addition of Tetronic-1107 in the casting solution

along with increasing the CBT from 0 to 25 degrees C incites formation of bigger pores on the top surface and results in formation of membranes with higher thickness and more porous structure in the sublayer. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. selleckchem Sci., 2013″
“Mechanomyography has recently been proposed as a control modality for alternative access technologies for individuals with disabilities. However, MMG recordings are highly susceptible to contamination from limb movements. Pressure-based transducers are touted to be the most robust to external movement although there is some debate about their optimal chamber geometry, in terms of low frequency gain and spectral flatness.\n\nTo investigate the question of preferred geometry, transducers with cylindrical and conical chambers of varying dimensions were designed, manufactured and tested. Using a computer-controlled electrodynamic shaker, the frequency response of each chamber geometry was empirically derived.\n\nOf the cylindrical chambers, the highest gain and the flattest frequency response was exhibited by a chamber 10 mm in diameter and 5-7 mm in height. However, conical chambers offered an average rise in gain of 6.79 +/- 1.06 dB/Hz over that achievable with cylindrical geometries.


study was done using musts obtained from two


study was done using musts obtained from two Birinapant in vivo red grape varieties (Bonarda and Tempranillo) artificially contaminated with two OTA levels. A duplicate set of tanks of 100 1 each was established for each must (Bonarda and Tempranillo). The fermentations were initiated by inoculation of two Saccharomyces spp. strains having different fermentation performance. The must from the Tempranillo variety was spiked with 6 mu g/l of OTA while that from the Sonarda variety with 0.3 mu g/l of the toxin. Samples were collected at different stages of the process. Performance of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations was monitored. Titratable and volatile check details acidity, pH, ethanol, sugar and SO(2) Concentrations were determined following standard methods proposed by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV). OTA analysis was done by HPLC. Detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.1 ng/ml, respectively. The OTA levels during the vinification trials dropped to an average of about 86.5%. The type of Saccharomyces strains used showed no effect on toxin reduction.”

report the fabrication of pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using a fluorinated styrene-alt-maleic anhydride copolymer gate dielectric, which was prepared from styrene derivatives with a fluorinated side chain [-CH(2)-O-(CH(2))(2)-(CF(2))(5)CF(3)] and maleic anhydride through a solution polymerization technique. The fluorinated side chain was used to impart hydrophobicity to the surface of the gate dielectric and maleic anhydride was employed to improve its wetting properties.

A field-effect mobility of 0.12 cm(2)/Vs was obtained from the as-prepared top-contact pentacene FETs. Since various functional groups can be introduced into the copolymer due to the nature of maleic anhydride, Selleckchem JNK inhibitor its physical properties can be manipulated easily. Using this type of copolymer, the performance of organic FETs can be enhanced through optimization of the interfacial properties between the gate dielectric and organic semiconductor.”
“This work investigated the mechanical and electrical properties of NiO-SDC/SDC anode sintered by two different methods: in a microwave at about 1200 degrees C for 1 h and in a conventional furnace at 1200 degrees C with a holding time of 1 h (total sintering time of 21 h). Nano-powders SM0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) and NiO were mixed using a high-energy ball mill, followed by the co-pressing technique at a compaction pressure of 400 MPa. No binder was used between the layers. The electrical behaviors of all sintered samples were studied using electrochemical impedance spectra in the frequency range of 0.01-10(5) Hz under 97% H-2-3% H2O, an amplitude of 10 mV, and at high temperature range of 600-800 degrees C.

The data suggest that physical activity, and in particular its in

The data suggest that physical activity, and in particular its intensity, may have an impact on the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.”
“Background The study was conducted to assess the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on hormonal behavior and on the secretory pattern of intrauterine glycodelin at the midcycle of ovulatory women\n\nStudy Design

Thirty healthy sterilized women with normal ovarian function were studied during one control untreated cycle and one LNG-treated cycle In the CH5424802 datasheet treated cycle, each woman received two doses of 0 75 mg of LNG 12 h apart during the preovulatory phase approximately 2 days before the LH surge Daily follicle development recordings were performed until follicle rupture was observed and serum glycodelin, LH estradiol estrone and progesterone were measured as well In addition, glycodelin concentrations were assayed in uterine flushing obtained on Days LH+1 and LH+12\n\nResults

LNG did not modify follicle rupture in 20 of 30 women In spite of ovulatory progesterone and the occurrence of follicle rupture in these women luteal BIX 01294 purchase phase length was significantly decreased as well as the serum concentrations of LH, estradiol and estrone in the periovulatory phase Glycodelin in serum and uterine flushings was significantly elevated in the periovulatory phase when compared to control cycles\n\nConclusions LNG taken at the dose used in emergency contraception before the LH surge increased prematurely serum and intrauterine concentrations of glycodelin at the time of ovulation Since there are well established glycodelin inhibitory effects upon fertilization, these results may represent an additional action of LNG in situations where the intervention did not interfere with ovulation (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved”
“Here we show that

mast cells contain dopamine and this website that mast cell activation causes dopamine depletion, indicating its presence within secretory granules. Dopamine storage increased during mast cell maturation from bone marrow precursors, and was dependent on the presence of serglycin. Moreover, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, was induced during mast cell maturation; histidine decarboxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 were also induced. Mast cell activation caused a robust induction of histidine decarboxylase, but no stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 expression. The present study points toward a possible role of dopamine in mast cell function.”
“Cardiovascular disease is among the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The pathological process of the heart is associated with altered expression profile of genes that are important for cardiac function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as one of the central players of gene expression regulation.

“Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia frequently causes sever

“Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia frequently causes severe pulmonary restriction that in turn makes mechanical ventilation difficult. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman who developed a refractory severe hypercapnic respiratory failure (P-aCO2 281 mm Hg, pH 6.77) despite mechanical ventilation with high inspiratory pressure and PEEP. A pumpless extracorporeal lung assist device, Nova

lung, was used as rescue therapy for carbon dioxide removal, enabling lung-protective ventilation and normalization of life-threatening acidosis. Open lung biopsy revealed buy S3I-201 an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia with histological features of a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Corticosteroid therapy led to progressive improvement of pulmonary function, soon permitting cessation of mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal therapy. The patient was discharged from the intensive care unit after 20 days. This case demonstrates the successful use of pumpless extracorporeal lung assist as an alternative device to pump-driven extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe hypercapnic respiratory failure secondary,to nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.”
“Bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most destructive diseases in all bean growing areas. AFLP analysis was used to assess GANT61 mw genetic variability and relationships among C

lindemuthianum isolates from Slovenia. Isolates were obtained from different

common bean growing regions in Slovenia and have previously been characterized as races 23, 55, 103 and 131. Nutlin-3 cell line AFLP clustering revealed two main groups that did not clearly correspond to race classification based on pathogenicity towards differential common bean cultivars. Local common bean germplasm as well as the set of 12 international differential bean cultivars were evaluated for resistance against the four C. lindemuthianum races that occur in Slovenia. None of the 26 local common bean landraces and cultivars was resistant to all four races; however, six genotypes reacted as moderately resistant. Considerably higher level of resistance was recorded among differential common bean cultivars, particularly those derived from the Mesoamerican germplasm. Introgression of some major anthracnose resistance genes from the Mesoamerican germplasm is therefore recommended to develop resistant common bean cultivars for our production system.”
“Introduction: Heparin induced-thrombocytopenia (HIT) has been well recognized in Western countries. However, there are no data in the Thai population. We therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies, HIT, and its thrombotic complications in Thai patients undergoing cardiac surgery using unfractionated heparin. Materials and methods: Seventy-three consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in this study.

However, many individuals with asthma have airway inflammation th

However, many individuals with asthma have airway inflammation that is predominantly neutrophilic and resistant to treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. An improved understanding of the molecular basis of this form of asthma might lead to improved strategies for its treatment. Here, we identify novel roles of the adaptor protein, TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducinginterferon-beta), in neutrophilic responses CX-6258 to inhaled allergens. In different mouse models of asthma, Trif-deficient

animals had marked reductions in interleukin (IL)-17, airway neutrophils, and AHR compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas airway eosinophils were generally similar in these two strains. Compared with lung dendritic cells (DCs) from WT mice, lung DCs from Trif-deficient mice displayed impaired lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced migration BTSA1 research buy to regional lymph nodes, lower levels of the costimulatory molecule, CD40, and produced smaller amounts of the T helper 17 (Th17)-promoting cytokines, IL-6, and IL-1 beta. When cultured with allergen-specific, naive Tcells, Trif-deficient lung DCs stimulated robust Th2 cell differentiation but very weak Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal a TRIF-CD40-Th17 axis in the development of IL-17-associated neutrophilic asthma.”
“Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, multidomain, single-stranded DNA binding

protein that is essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Crystallographic R788 inhibitor and NMR studies oil RPA protein Fragments have provided Structures for all domains; however, intact heterotrimeric RPA has resisted crystallization, and a complete protein structure has not yet been described. In this

study, computational methods and experimental reactivity information (MRAN) were used to model the complete structure of RPA. To accomplish this, models of RPA’s globular domains and its domain-linking regions were docked in various orders. We also determined rates of proteolytic cleavage and amino acid side chain chemical modifications in native, Solution state RPA. These experimental data were used to select alternate modeling intermediates and final structural models, leading to a single model most consistent with our results. Using molecular dynamics simulations and multiple rounds of simulated annealing, we then relaxed this structural model and examined its flexibility. The family of resultant models is consistent With other, previously published, critical lines of evidence and with experimental reactivity data presented herein.”
“Aims: The NCDR CathPCI Registry collects detailed clinical, process-of-care and outcomes data for patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the USA. The registry contributes to quality of care by providing data feedback on a wide range of performance metrics to participating centres and by facilitating local and national quality improvement efforts.