The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is the largest and most comprehensive study of risk factors for falls in older Caucasian community-dwelling
women. Limitations of prior prospective cohort studies [1, 6, 7, 9, 10] include small or unrepresentative samples, assessing a limited scope of risk factors, and not examining interactions among risk factors. Prior studies have focused on risk factors for becoming a faller [6, 7, 9, 10], whereas we have focused on cumulative falls to address the total burden of falls since fall-related injury and mortality risk increases with each additional fall [13, 14]. Our objectives in this study include identifying independent risk factors Tucidinostat in vivo for more falls in older women with consideration of behavioral and environmental factors independent of physical risk factors and calculating population attributable risk. Methods Sample and design Nine thousand seven hundred four community-dwelling women aged 65 years and older were enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures in 1986–1988. SOF participants were recruited from population-based lists in Baltimore, MD; Portland, OR; Minneapolis, MN; and the Monongahela Valley buy Selonsertib near Pittsburgh, PA. Eligible participants for SOF included Caucasians, women able to walk
without assistance of another person, and women without hip replacements bilaterally. The analysis sample consisted of 8,378 women (86.3% of women) who provided complete data on age, history of falls at baseline, and incident Mephenoxalone falls over 4 years. All women provided written informed consent and participated in extensive clinical examination and interviews upon enrollment. Incident falls Women were contacted about falls by postcards and telephone calls every 4 months beginning at baseline and continuing over 4 years. These queries included whether or not they had fallen
during the past 4 months and (if so) how many times. The definition of falls was reinforced at every SOF examination as “landing on the floor or ground, or falling and hitting an PHA-848125 cell line object like a table or a chair” . Incident fall rates were calculated by dividing the number of falls by woman-years (including recurring falls and corresponding woman-years). Potential risk factors and confounders Potential risk factors and confounders were classified into five categories: demographics and anthropometrics, geriatric conditions, medications, physical function, and lifestyle. All risk factors were considered to be physical factors except for lifestyle which were considered to be behavioral and environmental factors. Demographics and anthropometrics Age and education were self-reported. The highest grade or year of school completed was recorded, with completed high school defined as 12 or more years. Waist and hip circumferences, body height in centimeters and weight in kilograms (by stadiometer) were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated (kg/cm2).