Emotions are sources of expressive behavior, conscious experience

Emotions are sources of expressive behavior, conscious experience and physiological activation [64], all of which are involved in the decision making process. Contrary to popular belief, emotions do not necessarily act in opposition to cognitive reasoning [65]. Instead, an ongoing negotiation takes between the two

as they react to environmental stimuli [66]. Although it appears that the majority of the literature on shared decision making has not yet clearly integrated the contribution of emotions to the process, a few models have been explicit about it. For example, the authors of one such model posit that decision making processes that are more unilateral are loaded with more negative emotions than those that are more bilateral [67]. More

recently, an Selleck PLX3397 international, interdisciplinary group of 25 individuals met to deliberate on core competencies for shared decision making and agreed that there were two broad types of competencies that clinicians needed: relational (emotional) competencies and risk communication competencies [68]. Entwistle and colleagues suggest that many health Alpelisib research buy care practices affect patients’ emotional autonomy by virtue of their effects “not only on patients’ treatment preferences and choices, but also on their self-identities, self-evaluations and capabilities for autonomy” [69]. Therefore, it is expected that future years will bring increased interest in the intersection of emotion and shared decision making as they act together to forge effective patient–healthcare provider relationships. In spite of the many myths surrounding shared decision making, it is a feasible, suitable and adequate means to approach the clinical encounter in the 21st century. It will not solve all the problems of the world, or even those in the healthcare system, but it may help address some. Shared decision making is one of the many components needed to optimize the use of scarce resources in healthcare. More and more health systems will pursue integrating patient-centered approaches in their priorities for the future, and shared decision making

will Celecoxib likely be a crucial part of this paradigm shift [4]. However, incorporating shared decision making into clinical practice will remain a challenge and even more so if some of the myths are not recognized as such and if robust evidence is not produced to either confirm or refute those that persist. Shared decision making will require careful consideration from both clinicians and patients, with incentives and education on either side of the clinician’s desk [21]. However, it is definitely here to stay, and policy makers do well to pay attention to it. None. FL is Tier-2 Canada Research Chair in Implementation of Shared Decision Making in Primary Care. PTL holds a scholarship from APOGEE-Net/CanGènTest. The authors wish to acknowledge Louisa Blair for the editing of this manuscript.

Under water stress, the 64 ILs had a mean GY of 14 8 g per plant,

Under water stress, the 64 ILs had a mean GY of 14.8 g per plant, or 15.9% lower than HHZ. The numbers of ILs that had significantly higher and lower yields than HHZ were 8 and 10 (Table 1) with most DT ILs coming from the HHZ/C418 population and most drought sensitive ILs coming from HHZ/AT354. Many lines in this group of ILs showed early heading, reduced height and reduced fertility

under stress (Table 1). Under normal irrigated conditions in Hainan, the 82 ST selected ILs had an average GY of 24.7 g per plant, or 12.1% higher than HHZ (Table 2). Of these, 10 ILs had significantly higher GY than HHZ, resulting primarily from increased SNP/FNP, PN and PH (Table 3). Only GDC-0199 nmr two ILs had significantly lower GY than HHZ. Again, many of these ILs showed early heading, reduced GW and lower fertility as indirect responses to selection for ST. Under water stress, the 82 ILs had a mean GY of 16.0 g per plant, or 9.1% lower than HHZ. The numbers of ILs that had significantly higher and lower GY than HHZ were 14 and 18 (Table 1), which were roughly equal from the three populations. Many of these ST ILs showed early heading and reduced SF/FNP under stress R428 solubility dmso (Table 1). This group of 43 ILs had gone through two rounds of selection

for DT, one in Hainan and one in Beijing. Under the severe drought of Beijing that killed HHZ (100% yield reduction), the 43 ILs had an average GY of 9.0 g per plant, or a reduction of 70.2% compared with their GY in the irrigated control (Table 4). Under normal irrigated conditions, the 43 ILs had an average GY of 25.4 g, or 9.9% higher than HHZ. Of these, only eight ILs had significantly higher average GY than HHZ and the remaining ILs had the same GY as HHZ (Table 3). In Hainan, the 43 ILs had an average GY of 24.0 g per plant, or 9.1% higher than HHZ under irrigated conditions (Table 2). Of these, five ILs had significantly higher GY than HHZ, resulting primarily from increased SNP and PH (Table 3). The remaining ILs had the same GY as HHZ. Again, early heading was an indirect response to selection for DT in 20 of the 43 ILs (Table 3). Under water stress, the 43 ILs had a mean GY of 16.2 g per plant, or 8.0% lower than

HHZ. Eight ILs had significantly either higher GY than HHZ, most of which were from population HHZ/C418 (Table 1). None of these ILs had lower GY than HHZ and 15 ILs showed delayed heading. ANOVA of the combined data from Beijing and Hainan indicated that the differences among the ILs (G) were highly significant for all measured traits and explained, on average, 17.0% of the total phenotypic variation, ranging from 8.5% for PN to 31.5% for HD. The difference among locations (L) was highly significant for all traits and explained an average of 14.0% of the total variation, ranging from 1.9% for SF to 36.9% for PN.

Release of hepatic TG might take more than 6 weeks to establish i

Release of hepatic TG might take more than 6 weeks to establish itself and could explain the observed increase in serum TG levels after 12 weeks of supplementation. This potential beneficial

effect of krill oil on the liver in addition to a high variation in TG Avasimibe clinical trial measurements could have caused the loss of significance in serum TG reduction at 12 weeks in particular in the 4 g krill oil group. The reliability of plasma cholesterol measurements is much lower than for TG measurements [24]. It was therefore possible to compare individual treatment groups for changes in cholesterollevels at weeks 6 and 12. In our study, no significant effects of krill oil treatment on serum HDL-C and LDL-C concentration could be observed at any time point. The EPA to DHA ratio of 2:1 in krill oil might help to prevent an increase in LDL-C that has been observed with fish oil intake or the intake of n-3 LCPUFA preparations containing predominantly DHA [32] and [33]. Another suggested Doxorubicin cost risk factor for CVD is the omega-3 index that gives the percentage of EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in red blood cells [34]. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acids are highly correlated with their corresponding atrial fatty acids [35]. In this study, the omega-3 index was significantly increased at both time-points with all krill oil doses given and confirmed regular study product intake. Furthermore, approximately

2/3 of the omega-3 index increase during the study period was already seen after the first 6 weeks. Noteworthy, the omega-3 index went from 3.7 to 6.3% at 4 g daily krill oil intake. Similar changes were associated with decreased risk for sudden cardiac death in

a prospective cohort study by about 80% [36] and by a 90% reduction for risk of primary cardiac arrest in a case–control study [37]. In conclusion, the hypothesis could be confirmed and the combination of n-3 PUFA and PLs in krill oil has shown to be a safe and promising intervention with regards to reducing fasting serum TG levels and increasing omega-3 index, while not increasing LDL-C or total cholesterol. Krill oil in combination with lifestyle changes that include old diet and exercise may therefore significantly reduce one’s risk for CVD morbidity and mortality. However, due to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a potential biasing effect of TG release from presumably fatty liver with time or other reasons, a new study with more individual measurements per treatment group and preferentially over a longer study period would help to clarify the shortcomings of this study. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Supplementary Fig. 1.  Figure options Download full-size image Download high-quality image (140 K) Download as PowerPoint slide We are very grateful for comments on the protocol from Intertek Cantox (Canada) and on the manuscript from the Aker BioMarine science board members. Thanks to Laura Stibich for editing the final manuscript.

Alternatively, some unidentified genetic factor might correlate w

Alternatively, some unidentified genetic factor might correlate with HOXD13 mutations, resulting in different phenotypes. In summary, based on this Chinese family with distinct clinical features characterized by milder manifestations with bilateral clinodactyly, it is useful for clinicians to further understand SPD according to these findings. The novel mutation c.659G>C (p.Gly220Ala) accounted for the

clinical phenotype. This mutation located outside the homeodomain of HOXD13, where mutation has been rarely reported. A loss of function was predicted for this mutation, so functional analysis was conducted. The results showed that this mutation caused a 16% reduction in activating transcription. Further studies learn more are needed to explore the detailed mechanisms. None. We are grateful to Weihong Yang for the technical assistance. This study was supported by grants from Doctoral Startup Project of Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (S201204006336), Specialized

Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP) (2012171120075), grants from the PD0325901 National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (contract grant number: 2012AA020507), the National Nature Science Grant of China (30700847), the Combined Grant of Guangdong and Ministry of Education of China (2007B090400090), and the Key Project of Nature Science science Grant of Guangdong China (9251008901000017). “
“Figure options Download full-size image Download high-quality image (192 K) Download as PowerPoint slide Gregory Robert Mundy was born on June 23, 1942 and passed away at his home in San Antonio on February 25, 2010 after an illness that began in late 2008. He entered

the field of bone research early in the 1970s with major successes, and rapidly became an outstanding contributor in bone cell biology and translation of its research to clinical medicine, with a career that continued increasing in the depth and breadth of its impact. In the last few years of that career, he was Director of the Vanderbilt Center in Bone Biology, the John A. Oates Chair in Translational Medicine and Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology, Orthopedics and Cancer Biology at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Born in Templestowe, on the rural outskirts of Melbourne, Greg was one of two children of orchardists Robert and Hilda Joyce Mundy. He was educated first at the tiny local school, where he recalled something of a frontier atmosphere, with hitching posts for those children who rode horses to school. He completed schooling at Trinity Grammar School, where he excelled at cricket, played in the orchestra, edited the school magazine, was Vice-Captain of the school and Dux of Maths and Sciences. His compulsion to work and need to succeed was evident even then in ways that made his subsequent career easy to understand.

Our previous studies demonstrated that EHop-016, at concentration

Our previous studies demonstrated that EHop-016, at concentrations < 10 μM, inhibits the Rac activity of metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 [52], as well as the SKBR3 cell line (data not shown). To determine the potential of EHop-016 as a general Rac inhibitor, we also tested the effect of EHop-016 in the metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC3; a cell line that has been shown to be dependent on Rac/Vav signaling for migration/invasion [67]. Figure 5A demonstrates that 8 μM EHop-016 inhibits the Rac activity of PC3 cells by 50%. To understand the mechanisms by which EHop-016 may reduce cell survival

and induce apoptosis, we investigated the effect of EHop-016 on known Rac/Cdc42/PAK signaling pathway molecules, which have been implicated in controlling cell survival and proliferation. Activated Rac and Cdc42 Selleck Ruxolitinib may affect cell cycle progression via up-regulation GSK-J4 of the oncogenes Cyclin D and c-Myc [10], [19], [68], [69] and [70]. Rac/PAK signaling also regulates cell growth via signaling to Akt, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK [16] and [71]. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show that in both MDA-MB-435 and PC3 cells, EHop-016 significantly reduced the expression of the oncogenic cell cycle regulators c-Myc and Cyclin D expression

by ~ 25% to 60%. Next, we investigated the effect of EHop-016 on MAPK activity and expression. EHop-016 did not affect ERK activity or expression (data not shown). However, EHop-016 significantly reduced the JNK activity of MDA-MB-435 cells by ~ 30%. In PC3 prostate cancer cells, p-JNK levels were decreased but total JNK levels were also reduced to a similar extent, indicating that JNK expression is also down-regulated in this cell line. Moreover, in the MDA-MB-435 cells, EHop-016 reduced Akt activity by 40% at 4 and 8 μM, without affecting

the Akt activity of PC3 cells (data not shown). These differences may be attributed to disparate cancer types of the two different cell lines. Studies have also linked Akt activity Benzatropine and thus, the regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD with Rac action [72], and may account of the observed reduction in caspase activity in the MDA-MB-435 cell line, where a parallel 1.4-fold calculated increase in caspase activity is observed at 8 μM, when Akt activity is decreased by − 1.4-fold (Figure 4, A and B). Therefore, EHop-016 may reduce cell viability and tumor growth via a number of Rac-regulated pathways that control cell survival and death. We have demonstrated that EHop-016 is a viable tool for blocking Rac activity via inhibition of the Vav/Rac interaction and thus, metastatic breast cancer cell migration In Vitro at μM concentrations [52]. Following this publication, the utility of EHop-016 as a Rac inhibitor has also been demonstrated in leukemia and melanoma cells [50] and [53].

These experiments were performed by specialists at the School of

These experiments were performed by specialists at the School of Chemistry’s NMR Unit, University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, Scotland, UK). The sample was dissolved in 350 μl D2O (Sigma-Aldrich) and placed into a Shigemi tube. Spectra were acquired using 800 or 400 MHz NMR spectrometers (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany). 1D 1H spectrum was measured using 64 scans, acquisition time of 4.1 s, relaxation time of 5 s, and flip angle of 30°. A 2D Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY) spectrum was acquired

using t1 and t2 acquisition times of 148 and 256 ms, 2 scans per increment and a relaxation time of 2 s resulting in the total acquisition Veliparib in vivo time of 2 h 40 min. The 2D Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY) spectrum was acquired in 1 h, using t1 and t2 acquisition times of 37 and 256 ms, 4 scans per increment and a DIPSI-2 mixing time of 150 ms. The 2D Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy

(NOESY) spectrum was acquired in 3.5 h, using t1 and t2 acquisition times of 37 and 256 ms, 8 scans per increment and a mixing time of 400 ms. The 2D 1H-13C Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) spectrum was acquired in 2 h, using t1 and t2 acquisition times of 30 and 128 ms, 12 scans per increment. The 1D 13C NMR spectrum HDAC inhibitor was acquired in 6.5 h using 8k scans, the acquisition time of 340 ms and the relaxation time of 2.5 s. The 400 MHz 1D 1H spectra with and without 31P decoupling were acquired using parameters similar to those used for the 800 MHz 1D 1H spectrum. 31P NMR spectra were acquired in 20 min using 512 scans, acquisition time of 0.5 s and a relaxation Adenosine triphosphate time of 2 s. The 2D 1H-31P HMBC spectra were acquired in magnitude mode using a phase cycled Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Coherence (HMBC) pulse sequence optimized for

1H-31P coupling constant of 10 Hz. The spectra were acquired in 3.52 h using t1 and t2 acquisition times of 20 and 250 ms; 32 scans per increment were accumulated. The sample was analysed at pH 3.8 and 6.5, by adjusting the pH of the sample (3.8) to 6.5 after titration. In order to evaluate the relevance of ADP to the vasoactive effect of the venom as a whole, concentration-response curves were performed in rat aortic rings, in the absence or presence of suramin, a P2-purinergic receptor antagonist. Increasing cumulative concentrations of Lasiodora sp. venom (0.06-64 μg/ml) or ADP (0.001-316 μM) were added in aortic rings with functional endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine (0.1 μM). The experiments were repeated in the presence of suramin (100 μM), added to the bath 20 min prior to the addition of phenylephrine. Results are expressed as means ± standard error of the mean (S.E.M.). Results from contractile experiments were expressed as percentage decrease in the maximal contraction induced by phenylephrine, and the point when the basal line was reached was considered 100% relaxation.

(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6)) applied on appropriate SHI seque

(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6)) applied on appropriate SHI sequences. The same theorem with the Gamma pdf of flows can be applied to estimate the above parameters on monthly time scale. In both situations, μ, cv, and ρ1 can be used to provide reliable estimates of E(LT) and E(MT) at the truncation level equivalent to the median

flow level over a period of T-year. The drought analysis on weekly time scale becomes complex because of the involved underlying dependence structure and thus the second order Markov chain models are considered for which there is a paucity of close form equations for estimating the second order conditional Ipilimumab in vivo probabilities, viz. qqq and qqp. Therefore, the historical flow records are used to estimate these parameters by the counting method involving see more both the non-standardized flow series and appropriate SHI sequences. Potentially,

there are 3 values (based on the annual, monthly, and weekly time scales) of E(LT) for a T-year drought and consequently 3 values of the expected deficit-volumes, E(DT) that need to be considered for the assessment of volumetric-storage [E(DT) = σE(MT)]. A logical question that naturally arises as to which one of them should be used for planning the drought mitigation measures. To elucidate the point, the case of Torrent river, Canada (station NF02YC001) with the following statistical properties is considered: mean flow equal to 24.50 m3/s; σ equal to 3.68 m3/s (annual), 12.50 m3/s (monthly averaged value), 17.15 m3/s (weekly averaged value); ρ1 equal to 0.0 (annual, assumed as 0.0 in view of negligible dependence), 0.19 (monthly), and 0.73 (weekly). On annual, monthly, and weekly time scales, the values of cv ( Table 1 and Table 2) are respectively 0.15, 0.51 and 1.12 for the computations of E(LT). The values of qq, qqq and qqp were estimated as 0.76 and 0.84 and 0.24 at the median level (i.e. q = 0.5 and SHI0 = −0.32). Using the above statistics, it can be estimated that a 50-year drought is likely to continue for 5 years or 10 months or 33 weeks respectively

when analyzed based on annual, monthly, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase and weekly time scales (by plugging the values of parameters in Equations (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8)). The corresponding values of drought magnitudes can be computed as 0.58 (=3.68 × 5 × c1) billion m3, or 0.32 (=12.50 × 10 × c2) billion m3 or 0.24 (=17.15 × 0.69 × 33 × c3) billion m3. Note c1 (=31.5 × 106), c2 (=2.95 × 106) and c3 (=0.605 × 106) are conversion constants to covert the annual, monthly and weekly flow rates into volumes. It may be borne in mind that for annual and monthly droughts drought intensity, E(I) equal to 1 and for weekly drought E(I) equal to 0.69 (Eq. (6), z0 = SHI0 = −0.32 and corresponding q for normal pdf is 0.37) for use in the relationship E(MT) = E(I) × E(LT).

The image distortions (“shadows”) produced by the posterior (dors

The image distortions (“shadows”) produced by the posterior (dorsal) catheters can obscure the view of more anterior (ventral) catheters during treatment planning, and the catheters themselves can obscure the prostate contour especially near the apex. Schmid et al. (29) compared needle reconstruction accuracy with ultrasound to CT using a phantom. The two main problems were spurious echoes on TRUS and difficulty with craniocaudal

needle tip identification (up to 6 mm). In addition, definition of contours of the rectum and to a lesser extent the bladder may be less accurately rendered with real time TRUS planning than with CT-based planning. Newer 3D ultrasound probes will likely reduce some of these technical difficulties ( Fig. 2). Monitoring and adjustment of catheters is not unique to CT dosimetry or TRUS, but rather Selleckchem Talazoparib it is a key element of multifraction HDR brachytherapy. Most of the catheter displacement studies are based on the CT dosimetry process, which involves moving the patient between simulation and treatment delivery. Kovalchuk et al. (30) at the Mayo Clinic did a

dosimetry study of catheter displacement by comparing initial dosimetry with doses that would be delivered with displaced catheters. They noted a mean needle displacement of 3.5 mm between fractions. The D90 ≥ 95% was 100% vs. 82% (initial vs. displaced), V100 ≥ 95% was 87% vs. 53%, and urethra V115 ≤ 10% was 78% vs. 69%. Replanning improved the dosimetry. Huang et al. (31) at Henry Ford Hospital performed CT scans before every HDR fraction BMS-354825 research buy in 13 patients and made catheter adjustments when there was >3 mm catheter displacement. Adjustments were made on 30% catheters by an average of 5.8 mm. Without adjustments, the D90 would have been 10–32% less than the originally planned and after making adjustments, the D90 was within 10% of the original plan. Holly et al. (32) from Ontario Canada performed cone-beam CT to assess catheter displacement between planning

and the first treatment in 20 consecutive patients and evaluated the ability to improve dosimetry next by catheter readjustment. A mean catheter displacement of 11 mm was noted, and it would have resulted in a decrease in mean V100 from 98% to 77% (p < 0.001), mean D90 from 111% to 73% (p < 0.001), and an increase in urethra D10 from 118% to 125% (p = 0.0094) had it not been corrected. Catheter readjustments were helpful (V100 90%, D90 97%, and urethra D10 126%) but did not completely restore the original dosimetry. These and other studies demonstrate that catheter displacement can be a source of discrepancy between the calculated and delivered dose [33], [34] and [35]. The clinical significance of small (e.g., <3 mm) changes in catheter position has not been demonstrated. There are two TRUS treatment planning interfraction motion studies. Seppenwoolde et al.

In this work,

In this work, Quizartinib manufacturer a push–pull probe was coupled to ESI-MS and a droplet micro-array. This probe was used to analyse dry surfaces via both scanning electrochemical microscopy and droplet deposition on a MALDI

plate. It was also used to image immobilized enzymes under a fluid layer by delivering para-aminophenyl phosphate via the microfluidic probe and analysing the para-aminophenol products by ESI-MS (see also Figure 2b) [6•]. An application where electrowetting-based LOCS are applied in combination with ESI-MS is dried blood spot (DBS) screening. Succinylacetone in DBS samples was quantified using a fully automated, nine-step analysis on an LOC. Interfacing to find more MS was achieved via a removable pulled glass capillary emitter nano-ESI source, inserted between the chip substrates. No statistically significant differences (95% confidence interval)

were found between results obtained with conventional methods and the LOC [16]. Direct infusion-MS (DI-MS) refers to introducing sample into the MS without prior separation. DI-MS chips are marketed by Advion. These systems are capable of delivering robust data, can be used for high-throughput analyses, and utilize disposable tips, thereby not removing

carry-over. Recently it has been used for ganglioside analysis from the human caudate nucleus [17], DBS alpha-galactosidase assaying to diagnose Fabry’s disease [18] and determination of unusual glycosaminoglycans sulphation patterns in murine brain tissue [19]. A competitor for this system is the capillary gap sampler (Figure 2e). Analyte droplets are introduced from a 384-well plate into a liquid junction between a glass capillary supply line and ESI needle [9•]. The main advantage of this system is its ability to sample nanoliters, which is a three-order magnitude improvement over the Advion system. The vast majority of papers reporting the use of chip-based LC (chipLC) utilized commercial systems, for example from Agilent Technologies, Waters Corporation and Eksigent. Miniaturized LC–MS exists in a variant known as nanoLC–MS, which provides extremely sensitive analysis, but can have issues with robustness due to dead volumes and leaks. ChipLC offers a solution for these challenges. ChipLC interfacing to MS is often achieved via tubing to ESI sources or on-chip integrated sprayers coupled to a (special) interface. Monolithically integrated sprayers are also emerging [20].

Oysters, producing 500 million eggs a year exemplify the r-strate

Oysters, producing 500 million eggs a year exemplify the r-strategy or “fast” life

history. The great apes, producing one infant every 5 or 6 years (and providing extensive parental care), exemplify the K strategy or “slow” life history. All animals (and plants) are only relatively r and K. Thus rabbits are r-strategists compared to tigers, but K-strategists compared to frogs. Across species, studies show the predicted co-variation among the traits. For example, Smith (1989) found that PLX4032 among 24 primate species, age of eruption of first permanent molar correlated with length of gestation (0.89), body weight (0.89), age of weaning (0.93), birth interval (0.82), sexual maturity (0.86), and life span (0.85). The highest correlation was with brain size (0.98). Rushton (2004) found that across 234 mammalian species, a principal components analysis revealed a single r–K life history factor with loadings of brain weight (0.85); longevity (0.91); gestation time (0.86); birth weight (0.62); body length (0.63), litter size (0.54); age at first mating (0.73), and duration of lactation (0.67). The correlations remained high when controlling Selleck GSK458 for differences in body size. Rushton (1985) applied r–K life history

theory to human differences. He suggested that ‘one basic dimension – K – underlies much of the field of personality’ (p. 445). Diverse personality traits such as altruism,

Fenbendazole aggression, crime, intelligence, attachment, growth, health, longevity, sexuality, fertility, dizygotic twinning, infant mortality, and hormone levels were predicted to vary together culminating in a single, heritable, super-factor. Many predictions have been confirmed. For example, Rushton (1987) compared the mothers of one-egg twins (monozygotic or MZ) with those of two-egg twins (dizygotic or DZ). The mothers of DZ twins averaged higher on r-strategy traits including earlier pregnancies, shorter gestation periods, shorter menstrual cycles, less spacing between births, more siblings and half-siblings, more divorces, and shorter lifespans. Ellis (1987) drew a distinction between intentional victimizing acts in which someone is obviously harmed and non-victimizing acts such as prostitution and drug-taking. He conceptualized victimizing behavior as the opposite of altruism and therefore r-selected. Victimizers tended to have the following r-strategy demographics: many siblings and half-siblings, less stable pair bonds, parents with less stable pair bonds, shorter gestation periods, more premature births, earlier age at first sexual intercourse, more sexual promiscuity (or at least a stated preference for such), a lower investment in offspring (higher rates of child abandonment, neglect, and abuse), and a shorter life expectancy.