However, in this work, the addition of LiCl to the coffee husk di

However, in this work, the addition of LiCl to the coffee husk did not affect the mycelial growth nor the BE of P. ostreatus mushrooms (P > 0.05, Table 1). The fact that BE was not reduced by the addition of different concentrations of LiCl may indicate (a) a resistance or tolerance of the fungus to the metal or (b) that the amount selleck screening library of LiCl added to the substrate was not sufficient to cause inhibition or any toxic effect to the fungus. Some fungal mechanisms may have contributed to this tolerance, for example, a reduction of absorption or an increase in the efflux of metals through cell wall adsorption, the precipitation

of minerals and polysaccharides or extracellular binding by intracellular sequestration of metallothionein ( Gadd, 2007). The levels of minerals and the percentage of crude protein found in the mushrooms enriched with Li were consistent with data from the literature (Gençcelep et al., 2009, Kalac, 2009, Petrovska, 2001 and Sturion and Ranzani, 2000) and, therefore, the enrichment of the substrate with LiCl did not affect the nutritional quality of the mushrooms according to the parameters observed in this work (Table 2). The high concentration of Li in mushroom without enrichment (Fig. 1) can be due to the presence of Li in substrate without addition CP-673451 of the lithium chloride (Table 2). In different vegetables concentrations of Li greater

than 200 ppm have been found (Schrauzer, 2002). Vetter (2005) observed concentrations less than those found in this work, when investigating wild mushroom growing in Hungary. This may be due to the low concentration of lithium in the soil. As shown in Fig. 1, the increase in the accumulation of Li in P. ostreatus mushrooms was directly dependent on the concentration of LiCl that was added to the coffee husk. This result shows the potential to use mushrooms enriched with

the desired concentration of Li to obtain a positive effect when administered to patients for psychiatric treatment. Although accessibility of a mineral cannot be considered acetylcholine synonymous with bioavailability, it is an important factor that affects bioavailability. In addition, for an element to be absorbed and possibly used by an organism, it must be in an accessible form in the intestinal fluid: (a) as a free ion or (b) as a complex with other nutrients (Elless et al., 2000). The chemical forms of highly accessible minerals are also considered more bioavailable. It can be seen, therefore, that minerals present in non-residual fractions (water-soluble, exchangeable, acid-soluble or reduced bound) are potentially more bioavailable than those present in the residual fraction (Rabinovich et al., 2007). The residual fraction is only solubilised chemically using a very aggressive extraction, which suggests that the mineral is not bioavailable.

1) The differential diagnosis consisted of fungus infection (exp

1). The differential diagnosis consisted of fungus infection (exposure during renovating), rejection and malignancy. No abnormalities were seen on bronchoscopy but biopsies of the transplant lung showed a large cell carcinoma of the lung with lymphangitis carcinomatosa. No extrathoracic metastases were found on 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET). Due to his poor performance (WHO 4) no oncological treatment

was started and he died shortly after. Patient B, a 58-year old male with IPF, underwent a bilateral Ltx shortly after a single left Ltx failed due to rejection. In the explanted right lung a squamous cell carcinoma was found with mediastinal lymph metastases. No extrathoracic metastases were found on 18FDG-PET. The lung cancer was staged as pT2N2M0 and chemo-radiotherapy was started. 14 months later local progression Sorafenib manufacturer appeared, shortly after initiation of second line chemotherapy he died. Patient C, a 53-year old female with IPF

complained of left pretibial pain before transplantation. A bone scintigraphy showed uptake in the left tibia, 18FDG-PET showed uptake in both lungs and the left tibia. Uptake in the tibia was suggestive for hypertrophic osteo-arthropathy and was interpreted as compatible with her IPF as was the pulmonal uptake. At the time of transplantation, however, she was diagnosed with an adenocarcinoma in both explanted lungs. New bone scintigraphy showed multiple lesions suggestive MLN0128 purchase for skeletal metastases. She

died shortly after. A summary is presented in Table 1. After Ltx the incidence of lung cancer is increased in contrast to other solid organ transplant recipients.3 and 4 Lung cancer arises in the majority of cases in the native lung but sometimes is found unexpectedly in the Aspartate explanted lung. Risk factors are IPF itself, smoking, older age, male gender, prolonged immunosuppression and single Ltx.1 Causal mechanisms and frequency of lung cancer in IPF are difficult to determine. This is partly due to a yearlong lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for IPF, making interpretation of the literature difficult. Uniform diagnostic criteria are now established by the ATS/ERS in 2002 and better diagnosis is now expected.5 A recent study found a rate ratio of 4.96 for developing lung cancer in IPF patients compared to the general population; this was independent of smoking status.6 Due to inflammation and repeat injury induced by IPF, genetic errors may develop. Eventually this can result in lung cancer.5 83–100% of transplanted patients who developed lung cancer had a smoking history of at least 30 packyears.3 and 7 Patient A and B had a smoking history of 30 and 26 packyears respectively, but patient C was a life time non-smoker. Increasing age and male predominance are also recognized risk factors.

1 °C; and dryness index – DI: 200 mm, humid The summed GDD resul

1 °C; and dryness index – DI: 200 mm, humid. The summed GDD results for the period of the phenological cycle (budburst – harvest) of the grapevines characterised São Joaquim – SC as “Region I” (<1389 GDD), that is a “cold region” in terms of the Winkler Regions. It is believed that the São Joaquim regional characteristics (orographic, climate) are favourable for the cultivation of vines and consequently the production of high quality wines. Falcão, de Revel, IPI145 Rosier, and Bordignon-Luiz (2008b) verified these characterisations, mainly through obtaining good results for the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced

in this region. In this study, an HPLC-DAD–MS method was developed to characterise and quantify the main monomers (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate), PA dimers (B1 and B2) and

their phloroglucinol Galunisertib in vivo adducts in the Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese and Syrah wines, from 2006 and 2007 vintages, from São Joaquim – SC, Brazil. The ability of these wines to scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro (TBARS – thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were also evaluated, as well as their correlation with the flavan-3-ol composition. All chromatographic solvents were HPLC grade and were purchased from Carlo Erba (Rodano, Italy). Pure, HPLC grade (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-gallocatechin (GC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) were obtained from Sigma (Steinheim, Germany). The PAs B1 [(−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)–(+)-catechin] of and B2 [(−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)–(−)-epicatechin] were obtained from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). Phloroglucinol was purchased from Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Folin–Ciocalteau reagent,

vanillin, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, USA). Wines from the 2006 and 2007 vintages of the Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese and Syrah varieties sampled from São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, were analysed. Experimental plots of varieties were delimited in young commercial vineyards and used to make the wines. The region of São Joaquim is located in Santa Catarina State at altitudes of 1200–1400 m, coordinates 28° latitude and 49° longitude, and these are the highest altitudes of vineyards in Brazil. According to the USDA classifications the soil of this region is inceptisol, that is, a well drained soil with a soft friable consistency, a high capacity for water retention and absence of stones (Falcão et al., 2008a).

The OECD 408 guidelines are designed to test for carcinogenicity

The OECD 408 guidelines are designed to test for carcinogenicity of compounds. The guidelines provide details on how such a feeding study should be

conducted, including information on sample size, duration etc. However, the guidelines do not specify the histopathological analysis that should be performed. For example, what histopathological parameters should be used to detect or measure the carcinogenicity of a compound. Whilst it’s our view that histopathological methods to determine carcinogenicity are well Pictilisib order established in the scientific community, the effect of GM feed on animal health is not. In addition, the carcinogenic potential of a GM crop is not, and should not Neratinib be, the only pathology investigated. Therefore, there is a question as to whether these OECD guidelines are relevant to investigation of the safety of consuming GM crops. Whilst they may be used as a starting point, it is our view that guidelines should be established specifically for GM crops. Since GM food is considered to be a novel food, the guidelines should list details for a thorough investigation that includes a histopathological analysis of the gut and other organs. In other models of GI tract damage, such as mucositis (Howarth et al., 1996, Logan et al., 2009 and Sukhotnik et al., 2008), neonatal adjustment of piglets to normal diet (Godlewski et al., 2009 and Strzalkowski et

al., 2007), or in gastric biopsies (Fenoglio-Preiser, 1998 and Staibano et al., 2002), the analytical method is detailed

and specific, listing the changes that need to be investigated and the microscopic techniques CYTH4 and morphometric analyses that need to be used. For example, mitosis, apoptosis and autophagy are known to be good indicators of mucosal regeneration in the small intestine following injury. Therefore, immunohistochemistry with in-tissue cytometry looking at the expression of markers for mitosis (Ki67), apoptosis (caspase 3) and autophagy (MAP I LC3) can be used to assess mucosal regeneration (Godlewski et al., 2009). In mucositis-induced models, the investigation of the degree of damage regularly requires not only detailed quantitative histological analyses to be conducted (Howarth et al., 1996, Logan et al., 2009 and Sukhotnik et al., 2008), but also immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (caspase 3), cell proliferation (BrdU) (Sukhotnik et al., 2008), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF, IL-1β and IL-6) (Logan et al., 2009). Such vigorous analyses allow for a more precise assessment of possible pathological changes, whilst at the same time decreasing the chance of subtle changes being overlooked. Therefore, it is our view that in the investigation of the safety of GM crops on animal and human health, such a vigorous and in-depth approach should also be implemented.

241, and μrs2 = 0 414 (see White, Ratcliff, et al , 2011, Table 2

241, and μrs2 = 0.414 (see White, Ratcliff, et al., 2011, Table 2). Ter was set to zero. The early selection stage of the DSTP is not modeled. Perceptual inputs receive early attention weights giving rise to the component rates for the relevant and irrelevant stimulus attributes, μrel and μirrel. We thus

decomposed μrel assuming that it is the product of selleck products ptar = 0.383 (perceptual input of the target) and an attention weight of 0.282. This gives μrel = 0.108, which is the best-fitting value reported by White and colleagues. ptar was manipulated in the same way as the SSP, decreasing from 0.383 to 0.183 in steps of 0.01. μirrel remained constant (0.241). Because the perceptual manipulation necessarily affects the identification of the target, μss also decreased from 1.045 (best-fitting value) to 0.445 in steps of 0.03. Fig. 3C and D show the resulting predictions. Similar to the SSP, the DSTP predicts Piéron and Wagenmakers–Brown laws for each compatibility mapping separately. The compatibility effect also

increases when the perceptual intensity of the target decreases, because both early and late selection mechanisms are reduced. Under difficult target selection conditions (e.g., narrow spacing between target and flankers), Hübner et al. (2010) observed that μrs2 increases to keep performance at a reasonable level, at least when target selection difficulty is manipulated blockwise. Whether this compensatory mechanism holds for randomized designs is uncertain. In Appendix B, we provide an additional Bumetanide simulation of the DSTP, identical PI3K inhibitor to the previous one, except that μrs2 increases from 0.414 to 0.490 as target intensity decreases. This slight parametric variation produces a curvilinear shape for the relationship between the mean and SD of DT within each compatibility condition (see Fig. B.1). Since, anticipating our empirical findings, we have a strong linear relationship for target intensity, a constant μrs2 provides a

more parsimonious model and a better description of this aspect of the data. The present simulations uncover similar chronometric properties of the SSP and DSTP models. Piéron and Wagenmakers–Brown laws are predicted for each compatibility condition separately along with a super-additive interaction between target intensity and compatibility. These predictions are largely similar to those of a standard DDM (Stafford et al., 2011). A major difference should be emphasized, however: the linear relationship between the mean and SD of RT distributions, proposed to be a psychological law, is broken by the compatibility factor. In line with our theoretical analysis of time-varying drift rate dynamics (see introduction, Section 1.3), the SSP and DSTP models also produce a consistent DT moment ordering between compatibility conditions, and this is true for every target intensity level (as can be observed, in Fig. 3A and C, by comparing point and star markers with the same gray shading).

A Global Plan of Action for the Conservation, Sustainable Use and

A Global Plan of Action for the Conservation, Sustainable Use and Development of Forest Genetic Resources, devised from the findings of the SOW-FGR (FAO, 2014b), is one important means to address this gap. The Global Plan of Action has four main areas: (1) increasing availability of information on forest genetic resources to facilitate and enable better decision making on sustainable use and management; (2) strengthening and harmonisation of conservation methods to support forest genetic resources and evolutionary processes both inside and outside forests; (3)

enhancing selleck inhibitor approaches to sustainably use and develop forest genetic resources to support livelihoods; and (4) developing more appropriate policies, institutions and capacity-building approaches

to support successful planning in the forestry sector. The recommendations of the articles in this special issue are largely in accordance with these priorities, with specific areas for action highlighted below. Dawson et al. (2014) indicate that to improve the management of tree genetic resources for livelihoods requires a greater understanding of genetic processes in NTFP production (e.g., Baldauf et al., 2013) and more attention to genetic quality in the provision of tree planting material to small-scale farmers. In addition, more work is required to exploit genetic variation in wild and landrace stands of tree commodity crops to develop cultivars that perform better in more

resilient and sustainable mixed-species click here smallholder production systems. Dawson et al. (2014) reinforce the position of Geburek and Konrad (2008) that more attention needs to be given to the proper valuation of tree genetic variation for breeding Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) and production, in order to provide a stronger case for conservation. In the last decade, the field of community genetics has massively grown, with the importance of genetic diversity in sustaining ecosystem services more widely recognised (Moore et al., 2014 and Wymore et al., 2014), but this work also requires quantification in monetary terms of the value of genetic diversity, for example, when it is considered in restoration initiatives (Bozzano et al., 2014). Both Thomas et al. (2014) and Alfaro et al. (2014) stress the need for more provenance trials on tree species, especially on little-researched species that are important not only for the plantation-based wood fibre industry but more generally (e.g., Ræbild et al., 2011). Thomas et al. (2014) indicate that new trials are needed that pay more attention to how restoration sites are different from original habitats and that use less traditional planting formats (e.g., uneven-aged stands, in mixes with other species) to mimic natural regeneration. Alfaro et al.

The PowerPlex® ESI and ESX Systems were not initially designed to

The PowerPlex® ESI and ESX Systems were not initially designed to be compatible

with direct amplification and the cycling time was relatively long at about three and a half hours, while some of the newer direct amplification systems may be cycled in 90 min or less. For these reasons these four multiplexes were upgraded to allow both direct amplification and amplification from purified DNA samples with an overall cycling time of less than 1 h for both sample types. This paper presents developmental validation work performed on these four STR multiplex systems. Validation tests were designed to comply with guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) [10] and those of the FBI Quality Assurance Standards for Forensic

DNA Testing Laboratories [11]. Unless otherwise stated, Trametinib in vitro purified single source human DNA samples used in this study were organically extracted from blood and quantitated by absorbance at 260 nm on a NanoDrop® trans-isomer research buy ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (Nano-Drop Technologies, Inc., Wilmington, DE). Single source direct amplification samples were collected from three individuals and comprised blood spotted onto FTA® cards (GE Healthcare/Whatman, Maidstone, UK), buccal cells transferred to FTA® cards, buccal cells collected on Bode Buccal DNA Collectors™ (Bode Technology, Lorton, VA), blood spotted onto ProteinSaver™ 903® (GE Healthcare/Whatman, Maidstone, UK), and buccal cells collected on OmniSwabs™ (GE Healthcare/Whatman, Maidstone, UK). Standard Reference Materials 2391c, PCR Based DNA Profiling Standard, components A–C (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD) were also used for the accuracy and reproducibility studies. The PowerPlex® ESI/ESX Fast 5× Master Mix was used Urease for the PowerPlex® ESI 16 Fast, ESI 17 Fast, ESX 16 Fast, and ESX 17 Fast Systems and includes a proprietary hot-start

thermostable DNA polymerase, a buffering system, salts, magnesium chloride, carrier protein, and dNTPs. The autosomal primer pair sequences are the same as those used in the original PowerPlex® ESI and ESX Systems [4], [5] and [6]. The sequences of the amelogenin primer pair are the same except for the addition of three bases to the 5’ end of the unlabeled primer which improves adenylation under the faster cycling conditions and the removal of one base from the 5’ end of the labelled primer which prevents formation of a blob artefact in the 60–70 base region of the blue dye channel. The SE33 primer pair used in the PowerPlex® ESI 17 Fast is the same as that used in the PowerPlex® ESI 17 Pro System [5].

As in so many areas where canine rabies is enzootic, a national s

As in so many areas where canine rabies is enzootic, a national system of diagnostic evaluation and reporting is required, together with surveillance

initiatives to measure the true impact of the disease (Dodet et al., 2008 and Ly et al., 2009). Many island nations have succeeded in eliminating Apoptosis inhibitor rabies, but some still struggle with the disease. This is most evident where deficiencies in the veterinary sector preclude coordinated control and prevention efforts. One such area is the Philippines, where rabies remains a threat to the human population (Estrada et al., 2001). A recent retrospective study in Manila highlighted the difficulty of assessing suspected rabies patients in a resource-limited setting, and concluded that the true disease burden may be 10-50% higher than reported (Dimaano et al., 2011). Together with Tanzania and Kwa-Zulu Natal in South Africa, the Philippines has been targeted for new initiatives by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which GSK-3 inhibitor aim to demonstrate the feasibility of eliminating canine rabies in a resource-limited setting (Anonymous, 2008, Alliance for Rabies Control, 2012, WHO, 2010 and WHO, 2013). Although networks of rabies experts exist in Asia, their resources are limited; input

from regional and national public health authorities will be required to increase their impact. The Asian Rabies Expert Bureau (AREB), founded in 2004, is an informal network of experts from 12 countries, which aims to eliminate human rabies deaths from Asia. Using the goals of the AREB as a framework, and with guidance from the WHO, several Asian countries have resolved to eliminate human rabies by 2020. Achieving this goal will require raising awareness, educating the public and new reporting and surveillance initiatives. To support country-based initiatives aimed at increased rabies awareness, the AREB recently surveyed some 4000 animal bite victims from eight countries, and found that the situation of such patients could be markedly improved through

education on appropriate wound care and timely consultation with a rabies prevention center (Dodet et al., 2008) However, the nearest primary health centre is often prohibitively distant, and its medical staff are unlikely to have Rebamipide access to a diagnostic laboratory or be able to provide PEP. Additional resources are clearly required (Estrada et al., 2001 and Matibag et al., 2009). A similar network, the Middle East and Eastern Europe Rabies Expert Bureau (MEEREB) network that was established in 2010, has improved regional collaboration (Aylan et al., 2011). Surveillance and reporting of rabies in the Middle East is variable, with many Middle East countries collating and reporting human rabies cases, but few reporting animal rabies (Aylan et al., 2011 and Seimenis, 2008).

6) Fortunately, strict regulations for industrial waste loads (“

6). Fortunately, strict regulations for industrial waste loads (“zero-point-action”) starting from 1998 seemed to pay off, as could be seen from a decline in both nitrogen and phosphorus load between 1999 and 2001 in Fig. 6 (Li et al., 2011a and Liu et al., 2013). However, these regulations could not prevent the nutrient load from increasing further after 2001. Most allochthonous nutrient input comes from the north and west

of the Taihu Basin where most cities and the major inflow rivers are situated (Li et al., 2011a and Yu et al., 2007) (Fig. 4, black dots). As a result, high nutrient concentrations in the lake water can be found at the north and west side of Taihu. These nutrient concentrations decrease in a south-easterly direction from the input sources, through the lake centre towards SB431542 molecular weight the outlet rivers in the east (Fig. 4, white dots) (Chen et al., 2003a, Kelderman et al., 2005, Li et al., 2011a, Otten et al., 2012 and Paerl et al., 2011b). The spatial

decline in nutrient concentrations can be mainly explained by a loss of nutrients to the sediments and atmosphere. Nitrogen is removed mainly during summer by the large phytoplankton bloom populations and by denitrification (Paerl et al., 2011b and Xu GSI-IX cell line et al., 2010). Phosphorus is immobilised in the sediments mainly during winter when pH levels are low (Xu et al., 2010). As a result, nitrogen and phosphorus are alternately limiting phytoplankton production in Lake Taihu (Paerl et al., 2011b). The removal of nutrients ‘en route’ is important to prevent algal blooms in the east of the lake, but has a drawback as well. Years of intensive nutrient input have led to accumulation of mainly phosphorus in the lake sediments, forming a potential for internal nutrient loading once the external nutrient load has been reduced (Qin et al., 2006 and Zhu et al., 2013). Until the 1980s, macrophyte coverage was around 25% of the lake surface (Fig. 5, excluding East Taihu Bay)

but that decreased tremendously to approximately 5% at the end of the 1980s (Fig. 7). The disappearance of macrophytes can be mainly assigned to the massive mortality along the western shores and northern bays (Fig. 5). Meanwhile, macrophytes in Edoxaban the eastern part of the lake changed little, which could be explained by the lower nutrient concentrations, wind-shading and the shallowness providing more light for macrophytes (Li et al., 2011a and Zhao et al., 2012b). Despite the increasing eutrophication, the vegetated area in Taihu seems to have slowly increased since its minimum coverage in the late 1980s (Fig. 7), mainly due to increased macrophyte coverage in East Taihu (Zhao et al., 2013). Instead of being a sign of recovery, the increase of macrophyte coverage has been interpreted as a sign of an upcoming shift to the phytoplankton dominated state (Zhao et al., 2012b).

Castellnou and Miralles (2009) further

Castellnou and Miralles (2009) further Trametinib molecular weight detailed the industrial fire epoch by differentiating among five “generations of large wildfires” (Fig. 1), where a wildfire is defined

as an uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Both typological systems can be applied in most regions of the world. In this review paper we integrate these definitions for the first time in the long-term and recent forest fire history of the Alpine region. In fact, despite the considerable literature produced for specific areas, e.g., Conedera et al. (2004a), Carcaillet et al. (2009), Favilli et al. (2010), Colombaroli et al. (2013), no synthesis on historical, present and future fire regimes so far exists for the European Alpine region. The proposed approach additionally allows to insert the analyzed fire history in a more global context of ongoing changes as experienced also by other regions

of the world. To this purpose, the impact of the evolution of human fire uses, and fire suppression policies, on the fire regime and on the value of ecosystem services is presented; the potential influence of present and future fire management strategies on the cultural landscape maintenance, post-management forest ecosystems evolution, and the general landscape and habitat diversity is discussed. Looking at common traits in the worldwide fire regime trajectories, Pyne Pifithrin-�� molecular weight (2001) identified three main fire epochs consisting of a pre-human phase driven by natural fire regimes, a successive phase dominated by land-use related anthropogenic fires, and a third phase resulting from the rise of industrial technology and the progressive banning of the use of fire in land management (Fig. Methisazone 1): – First fire epoch: when the human population was too scarce and scattered to have a significant impact

on the fire regime and ignition sources were mostly natural (lightning and volcanoes). In this first fire epoch, fire became an important ecological factor along with climate fluctuations, influencing the selection of species life-history traits related to fire, e.g., Johnson (1996), Keeley and Zedler (2000), Pausas and Keeley (2009), and the evolution of fire-adapted and fire dependent ecosystems, e.g., Bond et al. (2005), Keeley and Rundel (2005), Beerling and Osborne (2006). Charcoal fragments stratified in alpine lakes and soils sediments have been used as proxy of fire activity in the European Alpine region (Ravazzi et al., 2005, Tinner et al., 2006 and Favilli et al., 2010). Early evidence of relevant fires in the Alps date back to interglacial periods during the Early Pleistocene (Ravazzi et al., 2005). However, due to multiple glaciations most of the Alpine stratigraphic record was eroded. Consequently, most fire regime reconstruction date-back to the Lateglacial-Holocene transition at around 15,000 cal. yrs BC (Favilli et al., 2010 and Kaltenrieder et al., 2010).