Quantification of very low levels of dystrophin signal in immunofluorescent studies of muscle biopsy sections presents a technical challenge. This is particularly true in the setting of proof-of-principle drug trials, in which the detection and
quantification of what may be significant changes in levels of expression is important, even if absolute dystrophin levels remain low. Methods: We have developed a method of image analysis that allows reliable and semi-automated immunofluorescent quantification of low-level dystrophin expression in sections co-stained selleck chemicals for spectrin. Using a custom Metamorph script to create a contiguous region spectrin mask, we quantify dystrophin signal intensity only at pixels within the spectrin mask selleckchem that presumably represent the sarcolemmal membrane. Using this method, we analysed muscle biopsy tissue from a series of patients with DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy,
intermediate muscular dystrophy and normal control tissue. Results: Analysis of serial sections on multiple days confirms reproducibility, and normalized dystrophin : spectrin intensity ratios (expressed as a percentage of normal control tissue) correlate well with the dystrophin expression levels as determined by Western blot analysis. Conclusion: This method offers a robust and reliable method of biomarker detection for trials of DMD therapies. “
“The brain is vulnerable to a number of acute insults, with traumatic brain injury
being among the commonest. Neuroinflammation is a common response to acute injury and microglial activation is a key component of the inflammatory response. In the acute and Reverse transcriptase subacute phase it is likely that this response is protective and forms an important part of the normal tissue reaction. However, there is considerable literature demonstrating an association between acute traumatic brain injury to the brain and subsequent cognitive decline. This article will review the epidemiological literature relating to both single and repetitive head injury. It will focus on the neuropathological features associated with long-term complications of a single blunt force head injury, repetitive head injury and blast head injury, with particular reference to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, including dementia pugilistica. Neuroinflammation has been postulated as a key mechanism linking acute traumatic brain injury with subsequent neurodegenerative disease, and this review will consider the response to injury in the acute phase and how this may be detrimental in the longer term, and discuss potential genetic factors which may influence this cellular response. Finally, this article will consider future directions for research and potential future therapies. “
“Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a hereditary spinocerebellar degeneration.