(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“To mak

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To make laboratory studies of thermal resistance in ectotherms more ecologically relevant, temperature changes that reflect conditions experienced by individuals in nature should be used. Here we describe an assay that is useful for Nutlin-3 cost quantifying

multiple measures of thermal resistance of individual adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east coast of Australia, (2) demonstrate that acclimation at variable temperatures during development increases tolerance to both low and high thermal stresses and therefore increases thermal scope compared to acclimation at a constant temperature, (3) show that temperate populations adapted to variable thermal environments have Romidepsin chemical structure wider thermal limits compared to those from the less variable tropics, at least when flies were reared under constant temperature conditions and (4) demonstrate that different measures of cold resistance are often not strongly correlated.

Based on our findings, we suggest that the method could be routinely used in evaluating thermal responses potentially linked to ecological processes and evolutionary adaptation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuronal plasticity within the amygdala mediates many behavioral effects of traumatic experience, and this brain region also controls various aspects of social behavior. However, the specific involvement of the amygdala in trauma-induced social deficits has never been systematically investigated. We exposed rats

to a single series of electric foot-shocks – a frequently used model of trauma – and studied their behavior in the social avoidance and psychosocial. AMPK activator stimulation tests (non-contact versions of the social interaction test) at different time intervals. Social interaction-induced neuronal activation patterns were studied in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal and medial), amygdala (central, medial, and basolateral), dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Shock exposure markedly inhibited social behavior in both tests. The effect lasted at least 4 weeks, and amplified over time. As shown by c-Fos immunocytochemistry, social interactions activated all. the investigated brain areas. Traumatic experience exacerbated this activation in the central and basolateral amygdala, but not in other regions. The tight correlation between the social deficit and amygdala activation patterns suggest that the two phenomena were associated. A real-time PCR study showed that CRF mRNA expression in the amygdala was temporarily reduced 14, but not I and 28 days after shock exposure.

Cortical development involves cell autonomous and cell nonautonom

Cortical development involves cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous

Autophagy inhibitor mechanisms as well as host responses to environmental factors, all of which involve DISC1 function. Thus, we will discuss the significance of DISC1 in forming an overall understanding of multiple mechanisms that orchestrate corticogenesis and can serve as therapeutic targets in diseases caused by abnormal cortical development.”
“In early 2012, a widespread porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) occurred in eastern China. A cell-adapted isolate, SD-M, was at the four-passage level of virulent field strain SD, which was isolated from a 2-day-old dead suckling piglet that had suffered from severe diarrhea in Shandong Province, China. We report here the complete genome sequence of SD-M. This sequence will promote a better understanding

of the molecular pathogenesis of PEDV.”
“Chronic PSI-7977 datasheet marijuana users (MJ Users) perform poorly on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a complex decision-making task in which monetary wins and losses guide strategy development. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study sought to determine if the poor performance of MJ Users was related to differences in brain activity while evaluating wins and losses during the strategy development phase of the IGT. MJ Users (16) and Controls (16) performed a modified IGT in an MRI scanner. Performance was tracked and functional activity in response to early wins and losses was examined. While the MJ Users continued to perform poorly at the end of the task, there was no difference in group performance during the initial strategy development phase. During this phase, before the emergence of behavioral differences, Controls exhibited significantly greater activity in selleck kinase inhibitor response to losses in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal cortex, precuneus, superior parietal lobe, occipital lobe and cerebellum as compared to MJ Users. Furthermore, in Controls, but not MJ Users,

the functional response to losses in the anterior cingulate cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and rostral prefrontal cortex positively correlated with performance over time. These data suggest Mj Users are less sensitive to negative feedback during strategy development. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sensory cortices can not only detect and analyze incoming sensory information but can also undergo plastic changes while learning behaviorally important sensory cues. This experience-dependent cortical plasticity is essential for shaping and modifying neuronal circuits to perform computations of multiple, previously unknown sensations, the adaptive process that is believed to underlie perceptual learning.

1) Of the patients in the 2 groups 7% and 15%, 14% and 14%, 16%

1). Of the patients in the 2 groups 7% and 15%, 14% and 14%, 16% and 20%, and 47% and 42% had no urinary leakage (0 gin or 0 pads daily) at these intervals, respectively (p Selleckchem BGJ398 > 0.1). In each group 1 patient required prolonged catheterization because of cystographic evidence of anastomotic leakage. There were no other complications.

Conclusions: Early urinary continence rates were high in patients undergoing single or double layer urethrovesical anastomosis. We found no improvement in early continence rates with reconstruction of the periprostatic tissues.”
“The perinatal period of brain is characterized

by dynamic changes in structure and high propensity for epilepsy. Animal models have shown that alterations of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) assembly or function may be related to seizure-induced cell damage, long-lasting impairments in brain development RepSox datasheet and seizure threshold. However, effects of earlier epileptiform discharges on AMPAR composition and sub-cellular distribution remain understudied. In this study, we analyzed age-dependent variation of relative GluR1 and GluR2 protein levels in primary cultured rat cortical neurons at 7 DIV, 12 DIV, 17 DIV and 21 DIV.

By inducing a single event of epileptiform activity at 6 DIV, we tested the effects of early-life seizure-like insults on AMPAR subunit distribution. We found a significant increase in synaptosomal membrane GluR1 expression in magnesium-free (MGF) medium-treated neurons at each time point detected (p < 0.05), while GluR2 expression increased at 7 DIV, and declined at 17 DIV and 21 DIV respectively (p < 0.05). That is, a trend of high GluR1 with much lower GluR2 expression on the surface membrane of epileptiform discharges experienced neurons over time in culture was presented. These findings in an in

vitro model of early-life seizure may inform rodent models of epilepsy, https://www.selleck.cn/products/dabrafenib-gsk2118436.html as well as the cellular mechanism involved in epilepsy-associated brain dysfunction. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We evaluated the effects of photoselective vaporization of the prostate on efficacy outcomes and urodynamic parameters in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Materials and Methods: The efficacy and morbidity of photoselective vaporization of the prostate were prospectively analyzed in 135 patients who underwent this therapy. Treatment efficacy was assessed regarding outcome variables, including International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, peak urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine volume 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Urodynamic evaluations, including cystometry and a pressure flow study, were performed before and after the operation in 78 patients. Perioperative values and postoperative complications were also noted.

When a pure tone (PT) at 10 kHz and a 10 kHz amplitude-modulated

When a pure tone (PT) at 10 kHz and a 10 kHz amplitude-modulated (AM) sound were used as S+ and S-, the cortical responses to S using AM were significantly depressed but those to S- using PT were not. The cortical responses to S+ showed no significant change. Upward frequency-modulated sounds from 5 kHz to 40 kHz (FM up arrow) and downward GDC-0449 frequency-modulated sounds from 40 kHz to 5 kHz (FM down arrow) were also used as S+ and S. Cortical responses to S- using FM up arrow and FM down arrow were

significantly depressed after learning, while those to S+ were unchanged. No significant change of cortical responses to S using FMs was observed in the left auditory cortex after learning. The learning-induced depression of S using FMs was FGFR inhibitor most clearly observed in the medial part of the tonotopic band to 40 kHz in the right primary auditory cortex, which might be involved in processing FM sounds. (C) 2010 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“This work examined whether semantically relevant schemas could facilitate learning in the transverse patterning (TP) task, which requires participants to learn the value of each stimulus in relation to the stimulus with which it is paired (e.g., A wins over B, B wins over C, C wins over A). Younger and older adults received the standard TP in isolation (alone condition), with additional sessions (practice condition), EPZ-6438 mouse or with 2 TP sessions, which used familiar stimuli

with known relations (e.g., rock-paper-scissors, semantic condition). Accuracy improved when training was provided within the context of a previously known relational framework, beyond the benefits obtained with extended practice with the task. When levels of education and vocabulary scores were considered as covariates, age-related deficits in accuracy were observed in the alone and practice conditions but were eliminated in the semantic condition. Extended practice and appealing to prior knowledge improved explicit awareness for the stimulus contingencies for each age-group. Thus, age-related deficits in learning relations among items may be remediated using existing relational information within semantic memory as an analog for new learning.”
“This study was conducted to whether the administration of mexiletine, a Na(+) channel blocker, impacts the recovery from demyelination. Under anesthesia, 0.1% ethidium bromide was injected into the dorsal funiculus (T3), followed by a mexiletine or saline treatment Motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings and luxol fast blue stainings were performed at one, seven, 14, and 21 days post-operatively. Conduction was delayed during demyelination, but the mexiletine-injected group demonstrated shortened latencies and reductions in the demyelination area when compared to the control. These results suggest that systemic mexiletine plays a positive role in protecting neural tissues from demyelination.

Whereas the shared etiology model best explained co-morbid cases

Whereas the shared etiology model best explained co-morbid cases in which MDD preceded ANX, direct causation was supported for co-morbid cases in which ANX preceded MDD.

Conclusions. Consistent with Selleckchem BMS-777607 previous research, significant cross-sectional and prospective associations were found between MDD and ANX. The results of the present study suggest that different etiological models may characterize the co-morbidity between MDD and ANX based upon the temporal order of onset. Implications for classification and prevention efforts are discussed.”
“Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors either alone or in combination with

hypomethylating agents have limited clinical effect in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, we demonstrated

that AML patients with higher miR (microRNA)-29b expression had better response to the hypomethylating agent decitabine. Therefore, an increase in miR-29b expression preceding decitabine treatment may provide a therapeutic advantage. We previously showed that miR-29b expression is suppressed by a repressor complex that includes HDACs. Thus, HDAC inhibition may increase miR-29b expression. We hypothesized GSK461364 research buy that priming AML cells with the novel HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) AR-42 would result in increased response to decitabine treatment via upregulation of miR-29b. Here, we show that AR-42 is a potent HDACI in AML, increasing miR-29b levels and leading to downregulation of known miR-29b targets (that is, SP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B). We then demonstrated that the sequential administration of AR-42 followed by decitabine resulted in a stronger anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo than decitabine followed by AR-42 or either drug alone. These preclinical results with AR-42 priming before decitabine administration represent a promising, novel treatment approach and a paradigm shift with

regard to the combination of epigenetic-targeting compounds in AML, where decitabine has been traditionally selleck given before HDACIs. Leukemia (2013) 27, 871-878; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.342″
“Background. Designed as state measures to monitor treatment response, symptoms of anxiety and depression (SxAnxDep) also have trait-like characteristics. No comprehensive etiologic model for SxAnxDep has illuminated the inter-relationship between their state-and trait-like characteristics, while including key predictor variables.

Method. In a prospective three-wave study of 2395 female twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD), we examined, using structural equation modeling, how genes, childhood and past-year environmental stressors, personality and episodes of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) influence SxAnxDep.

Results. The best-fit model, which explained 68-74% of the variance in SxAnxDep, revealed two etiologic pathways.


responsiveness to transforming growth factor-be


responsiveness to transforming growth factor-beta was verified by increased collagen III and fibronectin messenger RNA after treatment in vitro with transforming growth factor-beta.”
“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance and is defined by accumulation of liver fat > 5% per liver weight in the presence of <10 g of daily alcohol consumption. The exact prevalence of NAFLD is uncertain because of the absence of simple noninvasive diagnostic tests to facilitate an estimate of prevalence but in subgroups GW3965 of people such as those with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence may be as high as 70%. NASH is an important subgroup within the spectrum of NAFLD that progresses over time with worsening fibrosis and cirrhosis, and NASH is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. It is, therefore, important to understand

the pathogenesis’ of NASH specifically, to develop strategies for interventions to treat this condition. The purpose of this review is to discuss the roles of inflammation, fatty acids and fatty acids in nutrition, in the pathogenesis CHIR-99021 solubility dmso and potential treatment of NAFLD. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The level of green fluorescent protein expression from an hsp-16.2-based transcriptional reporter predicts life span and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. The initial report used a high-copy number reporter integrated into chromosome IV. There was concern that the life-span prediction power

of this reporter was not attributable solely to hsp-16.2 output. Specifically, prediction power could stem from disruption of some critical piece of chromatin on chromosome IV by the gpIs1 insertion, a linked mutation from the process used to create the reporter, or from an artifact of transgene regulation (multicopy transgenes are subject to regulation LY3009104 solubility dmso by C elegans chromatin surveillance machinery). Here we determine if the ability to predict life span and thermotolerance is specific to the gpIs1 insertion or a general property of hsp-16.2-based reporters. New single-copy hsp-16.2-based reporters predict life span and thermotolerance. We conclude that prediction power of hsp-16.2-based transcriptional reporters is not an artifact of any specific transgene configuration or chromatin surveillance mechanism.”
“The intense associative memories that develop between cocaine-paired contexts and rewarding stimuli contribute to cocaine seeking and relapse. Previous studies have shown impairment in cocaine reward memories by manipulating a labile state induced by memory retrieval, but the mechanisms that underlie the destabilization of cocaine reward memory are unknown.

4 persistence in the face of herd immunity, as the emergence of n

4 persistence in the face of herd immunity, as the emergence of new pandemic strains is accompanied R788 cell line by newly evolved neutralization epitopes. To potentially identify specific blockade epitopes that are likely neutralizing and evolving between

pandemic strains, mice were hyperimmunized with GII.4-2002 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the resulting MAbs were characterized by biochemical and immunologic assays. All of the MAbs but one recognized GII.4 VLPs representing strains circulating from 1987 to 2009. One MAb weakly recognized GII.4-1987 and -1997 while strongly interacting with 2002 VLPs. This antibody was highly selective and effective at blocking only GII.4-2002-ligand binding. Using bioinformatic analyses, we predicted an evolving GII.4 surface epitope composed of amino acids 407, 412, and 413 and subsequently built mutant VLPs to test the impact of the epitope on MAb binding and blockade potential.

Replacement of the 2002 epitope with the epitopes found in 1987 or 2006 strains either reduced or ablated enzyme immunoassay recognition by the GII.4-2002-specific blockade MAb. These data identify a novel, evolving blockade epitope that may be associated with protective immunity, providing further support for the hypotheses that GII.4 norovirus evolution results in antigenic variation that allows the virus to escape from protective herd immunity, resulting in new epidemic strains.”
“Evolutionary conserved and pleiotropic, the TPT1/TCTP gene (translationally controlled tumor protein, Pitavastatin cost also called HRF, fortilin), encodes a highly structured mRNA shielded by ribonucleoproteins and closely resembling viral else particles. This mRNA activates, as do viruses, protein kinase

R (PKR). The TPT1/TCTP protein is structurally similar to mRNA-helicases and MSS4. TPT1/TCTP has recently been identified as a prognostic factor in breast cancer and a critical regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 and of the cancer stem cell (SC) compartment. Emerging evidence indicates that TPT1/TCTP is key to phenotypic reprogramming, as shown in the process of tumor reversion and possibly in pluripotency. We provide here an overview of these diverse functions of TPT1/TCTP.”
“Fats provide a concentrated source of energy for multicellular organisms. The efficient transport of fats through aqueous biological environments raises issues concerning effective delivery to target tissues. Furthermore, the utilization of fatty acids presents a high risk of cytotoxicity. Improving the efficiency of fat transport while simultaneously minimizing the cytotoxic risk confers distinct selective advantages. In humans, most of the plasma cholesterol is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a metabolic by-product of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which originates in the liver. However, the functions of VLDL are not clear.

“The serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor is an only ligand-g

“The serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor is an only ligand-gated ion channel among 14 serotonin receptors. Here, we examined the roles of the 5-HT3 receptor in the formation of dendrites and axons, using a dissociation culture of embryonic rat cerebral cortex. Cortical neurons at embryonic day 16 were

cultured for 4 days in the presence of a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist with or without an antagonist. Neurons were then immunostained by antibodies against microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. All cells expressed MAP2, whereas only limited number of cells expressed GAD65. From the immunoreactivity and the cell shape, we tentatively divided neurons Idasanutlin solubility dmso into 3 types: GAD-positive multipolar, GAD-positive bipolar/tripolar and GAD-negative neurons. The total length of axons and dendrites, the number of primary dendrites and the dendritic branching of GAD-negative neurons were decreased by the agonist (10 or 100 nM), most of which were reversed by the concomitant treatment of

the antagonist. In contrast, no or little effect was observed on the formation of dendrites and axons of GAD-positive multipolar neurons, and the neurite formation of GAD-positive bipolar/tripolar neurons. The present study revealed differential roles of the 5-HT3 receptor in the formation of dendrites and axons of subtypes of cortical neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier check details Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Patients with cryptorchidism can have such short spermatic vessels that it

is impossible to place the testicle in a satisfactory scrotal position using conventional GSK126 orchiopexy. In these cases the most commonly used operation is 1 to 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. We present our surgical experience using staged inguinal orchiopexy without section of the spermatic vessels in patients with short spermatic vessels.

Materials and Methods: We used 2-stage inguinal orchiopexy in 38 children with intra-abdominal testis or testis peeping through the internal ring and short spermatic vessels (7 bilateral). Spermatic vessels were not sectioned, but were lengthened through progressive traction of the spermatic cord wrapped in polytetrafluoroethylene pericardial membrane (Preclude (R)). In the first stage we mobilized the spermatic cord in the retroperitoneal space and then wrapped it in the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. We subsequently attached the testis to the invaginated scrotal bottom. At 9 to 12 months we performed the second stage, which involved removing the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

Results: From the first to the second stage we observed progressive descent of the testicle toward the scrotum. At 1 to 8-year followup after the second stage all 45 testicles were palpable in a satisfactory scrotal position with stable or increased testicular volume.

The MAPK pathway was active, and its upstream genistein affected

The MAPK pathway was active, and its upstream genistein affected tyrosine kinase receptors Ntrk1 and Ntrk2 were present in the developing male urethra.

Conclusions: Gestational exposure to genistein contributes to hypospadias by altering pathways of tissue morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell survival. In particular, genes in the MAPK and TGF-beta signaling pathways and those controlled by FOXO, HOX and ER transcription factors are disrupted.”

Increasing the activity of defective cystic

fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis.


We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in subjects 12 years of

buy YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 age or older with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of ivacaftor every 12 hours (84 subjects, of whom 83 received at least one dose) or placebo (83, of whom 78 received at least one dose) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the estimated mean change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1).


The change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted FEV1 was greater by 10.6 percentage points in the ivacaftor group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were noted by 2 weeks, and a significant BIBF 1120 order treatment effect was maintained through week 48. Subjects receiving ivacaftor were 55% less WZB117 concentration likely to have a pulmonary

exacerbation than were patients receiving placebo, through week 48 (P < 0.001). In addition, through week 48, subjects in the ivacaftor group scored 8.6 points higher than did subjects in the placebo group on the respiratory-symptoms domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-revised instrument (a 100-point scale, with higher numbers indicating a lower effect of symptoms on the patient’s quality of life) (P < 0.001). By 48 weeks, patients treated with ivacaftor had gained, on average, 2.7 kg more weight than had patients receiving placebo (P < 0.001). The change from baseline through week 48 in the concentration of sweat chloride, a measure of CFTR activity, with ivacaftor as compared with placebo was -48.1 mmol per liter (P < 0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar with ivacaftor and placebo, with a lower proportion of serious adverse events with ivacaftor than with placebo (24% vs. 42%).


Ivacaftor was associated with improvements in lung function at 2 weeks that were sustained through 48 weeks. Substantial improvements were also observed in the risk of pulmonary exacerbations, patient-reported respiratory symptoms, weight, and concentration of sweat chloride. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; VX08-770-102 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00909532.

We found that chronic treatment with Li prevented excitotoxic MN

We found that chronic treatment with Li prevented excitotoxic MN loss in a dose dependent manner and that this effect was mediated by the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) signaling pathway. This neuroprotective effect of Li was potentiated by a combined treatment with riluzole. Nevertheless, MNs rescued by Li displayed structural changes including

accumulation of neurofilaments, disruption of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosome loss, and accumulation of large dense core vesicles and autophagic vacuoles. Accompanying these changes there was an increase in immunostaining this website for (a) phosphorylated neurofilaments, (b) calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and (c) the autophagic marker LC3. Chronic Li treatment also resulted in a reduction in the excitotoxin-induced rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in MNs. In contrast to the neuroprotection against excitotoxicity, Volasertib ic50 Li was not able to prevent normal programmed (apoptotic) MN death in the chick embryo when chronically administered in ovo. In conclusion, these results show that although Li is able to prevent excitotoxic MN death by targeting GSK-3 beta, this neuroprotective effect is associated with conspicuous

cytopathological changes. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Odor preference learning in the neonate rat follows pairing of odor input and noradrenergic activation of beta-adrenoceptors. Odor learning is hypothesized to be supported by enhanced mitral cell activation. Here a mechanism for enhanced mitral cell signaling is described. Theta bursts in the olfactory nerve (ON) produce long-term potentiation (LTP) of glomerular excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the periglomerular (PG) and external tufted (ET) cells. Theta bursts paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation significantly

elevate mitral cell (MC) calcium. Juxtaglomerular inhibitory network depression by beta-adrenoceptor activation appears to increase calcium in MCs in response to theta burst stimulation.”
“The effect of treating rats with clorgyline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was investigated. Administering others rats with METH (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) every other day during two conditioning sessions (i.e., saline/METH conditioning with no clorgyline pretreatment) induced a significant CPP compared with saline/saline conditioning. Pretreatment of the rats with clorgyline at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.), but not 1.0 or 10 mg/kg, attenuated the METH-induced CPP. Neurochemical analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the tissue levels of monoamines and their metabolites were not significantly affected by treatment with 0.1 mg/kg clorgyline except for the levels of 3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Clorgyline at doses of 1.