(C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To make laboratory studies of thermal resistance in ectotherms more ecologically relevant, temperature changes that reflect conditions experienced by individuals in nature should be used. Here we describe an assay that is useful for Nutlin-3 cost quantifying
multiple measures of thermal resistance of individual adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east coast of Australia, (2) demonstrate that acclimation at variable temperatures during development increases tolerance to both low and high thermal stresses and therefore increases thermal scope compared to acclimation at a constant temperature, (3) show that temperate populations adapted to variable thermal environments have Romidepsin chemical structure wider thermal limits compared to those from the less variable tropics, at least when flies were reared under constant temperature conditions and (4) demonstrate that different measures of cold resistance are often not strongly correlated.
Based on our findings, we suggest that the method could be routinely used in evaluating thermal responses potentially linked to ecological processes and evolutionary adaptation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuronal plasticity within the amygdala mediates many behavioral effects of traumatic experience, and this brain region also controls various aspects of social behavior. However, the specific involvement of the amygdala in trauma-induced social deficits has never been systematically investigated. We exposed rats
to a single series of electric foot-shocks – a frequently used model of trauma – and studied their behavior in the social avoidance and psychosocial. AMPK activator stimulation tests (non-contact versions of the social interaction test) at different time intervals. Social interaction-induced neuronal activation patterns were studied in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal and medial), amygdala (central, medial, and basolateral), dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Shock exposure markedly inhibited social behavior in both tests. The effect lasted at least 4 weeks, and amplified over time. As shown by c-Fos immunocytochemistry, social interactions activated all. the investigated brain areas. Traumatic experience exacerbated this activation in the central and basolateral amygdala, but not in other regions. The tight correlation between the social deficit and amygdala activation patterns suggest that the two phenomena were associated. A real-time PCR study showed that CRF mRNA expression in the amygdala was temporarily reduced 14, but not I and 28 days after shock exposure.